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Radiation

 

 

Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect."

~ Chief Seattle, 1854

 

We've arranged a global civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology. We have also arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. This is a prescription for disaster. We might get away with it for a while, but sooner or later this combustible mixture of ignorance and power is going to blow up in our faces. ~ Carl Sagan

 

Radiation is more damaging to weak cells than strong ones. Also fast growing cells are more vulnerable so fetuses and young children are most affected. One of the reasons sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is so effective against radiation is that it raises cell voltage and cellular pH making the cells stronger. Magnesium injects strength to this strengthening and iodine lights the fire in terms of metabolism. ~ Mark Sircus

 

 

 

 

Radiation Protection

Buy Geiger Counters

Radiation Network

Check Readings in Your State

 

 

NEW 
Michael Collins

Radiation Update
10.21.13

Free MP3 - Listen

 

NEW 
Yoichi Shimatsu

Japan
Update
2.03.14
Free MP3 - Listen

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive decay is a process of discharging radioactive particles. When talking about radiation, this article refers to ionizing radiation. Different types of radioactive decay include alpha, beta, and gamma decay. They are named after the particles emitted during this process. During the decay the radioactive particles take the energy away from the nucleus. Some radioactive decay changes the original nucleus of the atom into either a different nucleus or a nucleus in a changed state.

Types Of Radioactive Decay

Alpha Decay

Alpha particles, emitted during alpha decay, are made of two neutrons and two protons. Their structure is similar to a helium nucleus. Most alpha particles created by alpha decay do not have high penetration, compared to other particles. Even a sheet of paper can stop them. Alpha particles pose little threat externally because even air can stop them if the wall of air between the radioactive source and the object is wide enough. Skin also stops alpha particles from entering the body. They are very dangerous to living organisms when taken internally, however — much more so than beta or gamma ones.

 

Alpha particles emitted from Polonium-210 are notorious for having been used in murdering a former officer of the Russian secret service, Alexander Litvinenko, in 2006. He was tricked to ingest Polonium-210 in his food during a lunch meeting. It was a widely publicized case, especially because Litvinenko was poisoned in the United Kingdom, where he received political asylum.

 

Beta Decay

Beta particles, created during beta decay, are positrons or electrons. They have higher penetration than alpha particles, but they cannot penetrate aluminum, as well as a range of other materials. Beta radiation can enter the body during direct exposure. It is used in radiotherapy.

 

An interesting aspect of beta decay is that sometimes the particles that travel at high speed emit beautiful blue light, called Cherenkov radiation. An example of this was the glow of cesium-137 that attracted people during the Goiânia accident described below. It was because of this glow that at the time of the accident people thought that cesium-137 was a magical substance and displayed it in their houses.

 

Gamma Decay

Gamma rays created during gamma decay have very high level of penetration, much higher than the penetration capacity of alpha and beta particles. To protect against gamma radiation one needs to use a shield made from lead or another heavy material.

 

The definition of gamma rays changed a number of times but now they are defined as rays that the nucleus emits, except for gamma rays emitted during astronomic events. They are distinguished from X-rays, which are created by the emission from electrons that are not inside the nucleus.

 

Half-Life

Each radioactive particle has a half-life, defined as a duration of time in which the total amount of the radioactive substance decreases by half. It represents time and is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, depending on the duration of the half- life.

 

For example, the radioactive particles of iodine-131 and Cesium-137, that were some of the major substances that contaminated the surrounding area after the Chernobyl accident, have half-lives of 8 days and 30 years, respectfully. The total amount of time it takes for the radioactive material to decay will depend both on its half- life and on the amount of the material.

 

 

 

 

Double Blasted

 

Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce DNA damage, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, depending on the total dose, dose rate and animal species...

 

There were 2053 nuclear explosions which have taken place between 1945 and 1998, beginning with the Manhattan Project’s “Trinity” test near Los Alamos and concluding with Pakistan’s nuclear tests in May of 1998. Our governments and the nuclear power industry have created a strong nuclear wind that has been circling the globe for decades but is now intensifying because of what is happening in Fukushima. This past year alone we have changed the radioactive profile of the entire northern hemisphere.

 

The European Union, on November 21, 2011, prohibited the use of X-ray body scanners in European airports, parting ways with the U.S. Transportation Security Administration, which has deployed hundreds of the scanners as a way to screen millions of airline passengers for explosives hidden under clothing. The ban comes after the recent media outburst regarding the 1998 report that linked the X-ray scanners to cancer. The European Commission, which enforces common policies of the EU’s 27 member countries, adopted the rule “in order not to risk jeopardizing citizens’ health and safety.” European countries will be allowed to use an alternative body scanner, on that relies on radio frequency waves, which have not been linked to cancer.

 

Body scanners have been controversial in the United States since they were first deployed in prisons in the late 1990s and then in airports for tests after 9/11. As the TSA began deploying hundreds of body scanners after the false-flag underwear bombing on Christmas Day 2009, several scientists began to raise concerns about the health risks of the X-ray scanner, noting that even low levels of radiation would increase the risk of cancer.

 

Five-hundred body scanners are deployed in U.S. airports. The X-ray scanner, or backscatter, which looks like two large blue boxes, is used at major airports, including Los Angeles International Airport, John F. Kennedy in New York and Chicago’s O’Hare. The millimeter-wave scanner, which looks like a round glass booth, is used in San Francisco, Atlanta and Dallas. Within three years, the TSA plans to deploy 1,800 backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners, covering nearly every domestic airport security lane.

 

The TSA is clinging on to the X-ray scanners for dear life, while the EU is taking the appropriate steps in protecting the health of travelers. This is evidenced by how differently the two governing bodies responding to the X-ray scanner cancer issue. The European Union, following the news that the scanners are causing a threat to public health, decided to address the threat by removing the scanners. The European Commission issued a press release on November 14th calling for members of the European Union to remove X-ray scanners from its airports to avoid risking “citizens’ health and safety.” The United States on the other hand,went back on a promise to launch an independent safety into the machines.

 

Recently trials of the naked full-body scanning machines in Australia have revealed that the highly invasive technology has a huge error rate of up to 40%, but Australian government officials plan to set up the scanners in airports regardless. These radiation-launching machines, also known as Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT), have once again been proven completely incompetent.

 

 

 

 

The Code Killers (PDF)

How To Protect Against Radiation Exposure

Radiation Monitoring Network

Radioactive Scrap Metals

Understanding Becquerels, Sieverts, Roentgens, Etc.

 

 

 

 

10 Symptoms of Radiation Sickness

Here is what radiation sickness looks like:

The earliest symptoms of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) are nausea and disorientation. If you start vomiting within an hour of exposure this implies a massive dose of radiation, making it far likelier you will die without medical treatment.

 

Radiation depletes clot-forming platelets in the blood, leading to severe bruising and wounds that won’t heal. In certain cases, this manifests as purpura, discolored patches caused by bleeding beneath the skin (pictured above).

 

3. Bleeding Out Of Orifices

Also due to the body’s inability to clot, you may bleed spontaneously from the nose, mouth and rectum.

 

4. Bloody Diarrhea And Vomit

Similar symptoms as above, different cause. Radiation depletes the cells of the intestinal wall and stomach. This irritates the stomach and intestines, leading to bloody vomit and stool.

 

5. Radiation Burns

Clinically known as cutaneous radiation syndrome, or CRS, the first sign is itching. Exposed skin may then turn red, blister, develop open sores and slough off.

 

6. Hair Loss

Radiation damages hair follicles, which could lead to rapid hair loss.

 

7. Headaches, Weakness And Fatigue

Due to anemia from the loss of blood cells, weakness and fainting may occur. Also leads to hypotension, or extremely low blood pressure.

 

8. Mouth Sores

Ulcers in and around the mouth, a visible manifestation of ulcers all along the esophagus and digestive tract.

 

9. Seizures And Tremors

Intense and prolonged exposure to radiation can impair the central nervous system. This can lead to a general lack of muscle coordination and seizures.

 

Fever And Infections

What will ultimately kill someone suffering from radiation sickness. Radiation destroys bone marrow and white blood cells, leading to increased risk of bacterial, viral and fungal infections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russian authorities have announced they fear that 14 nuclear reactors dumped into the Arctic ocean by the defunct Soviet Union—some of the reactors overflowing with highly radioactive fuel rods—“could re-achieve criticality and explode” at any time.

Terrifying news has been released by the Russian government and as usual the American media is busy reporting on drunken movie stars and political idiots. Russian authorities have announced they fear that 14 nuclear reactors dumped into the Arctic ocean by the defunct Soviet Union—some of the reactors overflowing with highly radioactive fuel rods“could re-achieve criticality and explode” at any time.

 

The risk of radioactive contamination of the waters and eventual coastlines exceeds the potential nuclear danger the U.S. exposed the world to by dumping raw nuclear waste into the sea from 1946 to 1970. The highly toxic, radioactive waste includes about 107,000 drums dumped across a region covering almost 1,400 square miles. The potential Russian nuke catastrophe would far surpass the Chernobyl reactor accident and experts in Norway conclude such a nuclear event could easily dwarf the ongoing disaster with the four TEPCO reactors in Fukushima, Japan.

 

Monumental environmental disaster in the making

Western media has suppressed a potential planetary disaster that’s accelerating at this very moment. The Bellona Foundation reports that “Enormous quantities of decommissioned Russian nuclear reactors and radioactive waste were dumped into the Kara Sea in the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia over a course of decades.” Declassified documents passed on to Norwegian officials by Russian officials reveal the extent of the danger and the potential catastrophe. The Norwegian Bellona Foundation “was founded in 1986 and has become a recognized technology and solution-oriented organization with offices in Oslo, Brussels, Washington D.C., St. Petersburg and Murmansk,” their organization’s website explains. “Altogether, some 75 engineers, ecologists, nuclear physicists, economists, lawyers, political scientists and journalists work at Bellona.”

 

Despite extensive coverage of the major story in the Norwegian media, the Western press has paid little attention. According to the Russian documents analyzed by Bellona experts, the nuclear material dumped by the former U.S.S.R. includes “17,000 containers of radioactive waste, 19 ships containing radioactive waste, 14 nuclear reactors, including five that still contain spent nuclear fuel; 735 other pieces of radioactively contaminated heavy machinery, and a (scuttled) K-27 nuclear submarine with its two reactors loaded with (highly volatile) nuclear fuel.”

 

Reactors can re-achieve criticality and explode

Documents confirm “…the presence of the K-27 nuclear submarine, which was scuttled in 50 meters of water with its two reactors filled with spent nuclear fuel in in Stepovogo Bay in the Kara Sea in 1981.” The news service ENENEWS: Energy News reports that information concerning “the reactors about the K-27, that could re-achieve criticality and explode, was released at the Bellona-Rosatom seminar in Moscow.”

 

Russian naval nuclear waste expert Igor Kurdrik affirms two K-27 class nuclear submarines now lie on the bottom of the Arctic Sea off Siberia. “This danger had previously been unknown, and is very important information. When they search and map these reactors, they must be the first priority.” Rosatom, the Russian Federation’s nuclear agency confirmed the information is accurate and valid.

 

Radiation leakage also imminent

“Radiation leakages will come sooner or later if we just leave the K-27 there. The sub has already been on the seafloor for 30 years, and it was rusty even before it was sunken. Leakages of radioactivity under water are nearly impossible to clean up,” Thomas Nilsen, a nuclear safety expert who has extensively mapped radioactive waste on the Arctic seabed, told RT.com. Bellona believes intensive salvage and clean-up operations are not only critical, but it is a desperate race against time. Both the Foundation and Rosatom agreed in a joint press release issued during February 2012 that the atomic reactors aboard the K-27 submarines could intensify their internal nuclear reactions, regain criticality, generate hydrogen gas and explode.

 

A sense of urgency has been expressed by officials in Moscow to the government of Norway. Bellona suspects this is because the situation is approaching a critical stage and the Russians believe it is above their capacity to resolve the crisis alone.

 

The logical steps to deal with nuclear wastes are:

1. Stop making the stuff.  Close down the commercial and military nuclear reactors that produce plutonium and other long-lived radioactive materials

2. Choose the “least worst” option to dispose of the existing nuclear wastes   - (a) Interim storage of radioactive wastes into above ground containers (b) Deep burial underground permanent repositories.

 

The nuclear lobby, desperate to stave off the death of its industry, comes up with grand promises of new Generation IV systems, reactors that will reprocess, “recycle” plutonium wastes into Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX)  to fuel for other Gen IV reactors.  At the end, highly toxic radioactive wastes are still produced. And all this – despite the enormous costs, the very dangerous transport of plutonium, the risks of terrorism, the increased risks of weapons proliferation.

 

The nuclear lobby’s cries for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR)s, Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR)s,  Molten Salt Reactors (MSR)s, Gas Cooled Fast rectors (GCFR)s, Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SCFR)s, Lead Cooled Fast Reactors (LCFR)s –  all desperate and conflicting cries for their own salvation, rather than any solution to wastes, costs, climate change, energy needs.

 

The worry is that the nuclear lobby might win, by manipulating governments and populations into buying their expensive and dangerous new toys –  because nobody really wants a nuclear waste tomb in their area. The trouble is – nuclear cemeteries, however unappealing, are still the least worst option.

 

Even low-level radioactivity is damaging.  Broad analysis of many radiation studies finds no exposure threshold that precludes harm to life. Even the very lowest levels of radiation are harmful to life, scientists have concluded in the Cambridge Philosophical Society’s journal Biological Reviews. Reporting the results of a wide-ranging analysis of 46 peer-reviewed studies published over the past 40 years, researchers from the University of South Carolina and the University of Paris-Sud found that variation in low-level, natural background radiation had small, but highly statistically significant, negative effects on DNA as well as several measures of health.

 

The scientists reported significant negative effects in a range of categories, including immunology, physiology, mutation and disease occurrence. The frequency of negative effects was beyond that of random chance. There’s been a sentiment in the community that because we don’t see obvious effects in some of these places, or that what we see tends to be small and localized, that maybe there aren’t any negative effects from low levels of radiation. But when you do the meta-analysis, you do see significant negative effects.

 

 

Russia Dumped 19 Radioactive Ships Plus 14 Nuclear Reactors Into the Ocean

Governments – including both Russia and the United States – have been covering up nuclear meltdowns for 50 years and covering up the dangers of radiation for 67 years. Governments have also covered up dumping of nuclear waste in the ocean. As the International Atomic Energy Agency notes,  13 countries used ocean dumping to “dispose” of radioactive waste between 1946 and 1993. Since 1993, ocean disposal has been banned by agreement through a number of international treaties, including the London Convention of 1972, the Basel Convention, and MARPOL 73/78.

 

Some companies have been dumping radioactive waste and other hazardous materials into the coastal waters of Somalia [well after the treaties were signed], taking advantage of the fact that the country has had no functioning government from the early 1990s onwards. 78% of dumping at Atlantic Ocean is done by UK, followed by Switzerland, USA, and Belgium. Sunken USSR nuclear submarines are not included. 137 x 103 tons were dumped by 8 European countries. USA did not report tonnage nor volume of 34,282 containers.

 

In the Pacific Ocean, USSR 874TBq [i.e. terabecquerels], USA 554 TBq, Japan 15.1TBq, New Zealand 1+TBq and unknown figure by South Korea. 751×103m3 were dumped by Japan and USSR. USA did not report tonnage nor volume of 56,261 containers. In the Sea of Japan,  USSR dumped 749TBq in the Sea of Japan, Japan dumped 15.1TBq south of main island. South Korea dumped 45 tones (unknown radio activity value).

 

The catalogue of waste dumped at sea by the Soviets includes some 17,000 containers of radioactive waste, 19 ships containing radioactive waste, 14 nuclear reactors, including five that still contain spent nuclear fuel; 735 other pieces of radioactively contaminated heavy machinery, and the K-27 nuclear submarine with its two reactors loaded with nuclear fuel scuttled in 50 meters of water. No one can guarantee that this outline is complete. Areas of the Kara Sea were used as a radioactive dump until the early 1990s.

 

The reactors aboard the K-27 could reachieve criticality and explode. This danger had previously been unknown, and is very important information. Eight nuclear submarines have sunk as a consequence of either accident or extensive damage: two from the United States Navy, four from the Soviet Navy, and two from the Russian Navy. K-27: The only Project 645 submarine, equipped with a liquid metal cooled reactor, was irreparably damaged by a reactor accident (control rod failure) on May 24, 1968. 9 were killed in the reactor accident. After shutting down the reactor and sealing the compartment, the Soviet Navy scuttled her in shallow water of the Kara Sea on September 6, 1982, contrary to the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

 

 

 

Fukushima Can Happen Here. What the NRC and Nuclear Industry Don't Want You to Know

The nuclear industry and nuclear regulators worldwide, as well as specifically in the United States, have continually covered up disasters and radiation releases as if they never happened or posed no danger to the public. They actually fund their regulators, The NRC in the United States and the IAEA for the world. Just as the BP oil spill one year ago heaped scrutiny on the United State’s Minerals Management Service, harshly criticized for lax drilling oversight and cozy ties with the oil industry, the nuclear crisis in Japan is shining a light on that nation’s safety practices.

 

This is only a fake organization because every organization which depends on the nuclear industry–and the IAEA depends on the nuclear industry–cannot perform properly. Unfortunately the NRC isn’t any better. The NRC has long served as little more than a lap dog to the nuclear industry, unwilling to crack down on unsafe reactors. The agency is a wholly owned subsidiary of the nuclear power industry. Even resident Obama denounced the NRC during the 2008 campaign, calling it a “moribund agency that needs to be revamped and has become captive of the industries that it regulates.”

 

In the years ahead, nuclear experts warn, the consequences of the agency’s inaction could be dire. The NRC has consistently put industry profits above public safety. How can we trust the credibility of the IAEA and the NRC when it is documented fact that they depend on the very industry they supposedly regulate? In America there are numerous vulnerabilities at multiple nuclear power plants and areas contaminated with radiation that are literally being ignored by almost every single expert who has the know how to expose the dangers. One exception has been nuclear engineer Arnie Gundersen. Gundersen has raised many startling issues at our nations nuclear power plants that should open the eyes of all Americans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum have very different effects upon interaction with matter. Starting with low frequency radio waves, the human body is quite transparent. (You can listen to your portable radio inside your home since the waves pass freely through the walls of your house and even through the person beside you!) As you move upward through microwaves and infrared to visible light, you absorb more and more strongly. In the lower ultraviolet range, all the UV from the sun is absorbed in a thin outer layer of your skin.

 

As you move further up into the x-ray region of the spectrum, you become transparent again, because most of the mechanisms for absorption are gone. You then absorb only a small fraction of the radiation, but that absorption involves the more violent ionization events. Each portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has quantum energies appropriate for the excitation of certain types of physical processes. The energy levels for all physical processes at the atomic and molecular levels are quantized, and if there are no available quantized energy levels with spacings which match the quantum energy of the incident radiation, then the material will be transparent to that radiation, and it will pass through.

 

Currently there are 440 nuclear power reactors in operation and 59 under construction. There are 493 new nuclear reactors planned or proposed globally as of Aug 10, 2010 up from 435 Dec ‘09 (+13%). A total of 84 new reactors are scheduled to be commissioned by 2017.

 

As of Aug 10, 2010, countries with the largest number of planned and proposed new nuclear reactors are: China 153; India 60; Russia 44; USA 31; South Africa 27 (mostly smaller modular reactors); and Ukraine 22.

 

 

Food Washer

Ionizing Radiation

Ionization is the ejection of one or more electrons from an atom or molecule to produce a fragment with a net positive charge (positive ion). The classification of radiation as "ionizing" is essentially a statement that it has enough quantum energy to eject an electron. This is a crucial distinction, since "ionizing radiation" can produce a number of physiological effects, such as those associated with risk of mutation or cancer, which non-ionizing radiation cannot directly produce at any intensity.

 

Although the precise ionization energy differs with the atom or molecule involved, a general statement is any radiation with quantum energy above a few electron volts is considered to be ionizing radiation. The threshold for ionization lies somewhere in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, so all x-rays and gamma-rays are ionizing radiation. All forms of nuclear radiation are also ionizing radiation because of their extremely high energies.

 

Units of Measurement

The unit used to measure radiation dosage is the rem, which stands for roentgen equivalent in man. It represents the amount of radiation needed to produce a particular amount of damage to living tissue. The total dose of rems determines how much harm a person suffers. At Hiroshima and Nagasaki, people received a dose of rems at the instant of the explosions, then more from the surroundings and, in limited areas, from fallout. Fallout is composed of radioactive particles that are carried into the upper atmosphere by a nuclear explosion and that eventually fall back to the earth's surface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effects of Radiation Exposure on Human Health

The practical threshold for radiation risk is that of ionization of tissue. Since the ionization energy of a hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV (electron volts), the level around 10 eV is an approximate threshold. Since the energies associated with nuclear radiation are many orders of magnitude above this threshold, in the MeV range, then all nuclear radiation is ionizing radiation. Likewise, x-rays are ionizing radiation, as is the upper end of the ultraviolet range.

 

Cesium-137 – mimics potassium
Strontium-90 – mimics calcium
Iodine-131 – mimics iodine

 

Cesium-137 is unique in that it is totally anthropogenic. Unlike most other radioisotopes, cesium-137 is not produced from its non-radioactive isotope, but from uranium. It did not occur in nature before nuclear weapons testing began. By observing the characteristic gamma rays emitted by this isotope, it is possible to determine whether the contents of a given sealed container were made before or after the advent of atomic bomb explosions.

 

Radioactive Granite Counter Tops

As the popularity of granite countertops has grown in the last decade — demand for them has increased tenfold. Granite can contain uranium or other radioactive elements. Some new granite counters contain as much uranium as commercial uranium ore. Jupurana Bordeaux is one of the granites that are likely to be radioactive, emitting gamma radiation at many times background levels.

 

Usually, radon is found in your basement (underground deposits of uranium decay and produce the gas) — but when radon specialists inspect houses —they find elevated radiation and radon in the kitchen. Some granite quarries are near uranium mines. Most granite does not contain large amounts of uranium, but some granite can have more uranium than a homeowner would want in the home.

 

The E.P.A. recommends taking action if radon gas levels in the home exceeds 4 picocuries per liter of air (a measure of radioactive emission); about the same risk for cancer as smoking a half a pack of cigarettes per day. Radon specialists are finding readings of 100 picocuries per liter in the kitchen. In the basement, where radon readings are expected to be higher because the gas usually seeps into homes from decaying uranium underground, the readings were 6 picocuries per liter.

 

The average person is subjected to radiation from natural and man-made sources at an annual level of 360 millirem (a measure of energy absorbed by the body), according to government agencies like the E.P.A. and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limit of additional exposure set by the commission for people living near nuclear reactors is 100 millirem per year. To put this in perspective, passengers get 3 millirem of cosmic radiation on a flight from New York to Los Angeles.

 

There is no known safe level of radon or radiation, scientists agree that any exposure increases your health risk. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking and is considered especially dangerous to smokers, whose lungs are already compromised. Children and developing fetuses are vulnerable to radiation, which can cause other forms of cancer. The E.P.A. is not studying health risks associated with granite counter tops because of a “lack of resources.”

 

How much radioactive granite is installed in homes? How many of those homes have young children or pregnant women? Why don’t granite showrooms warn their customers? Personal injury lawyers are already advertising on the Web for clients who think they may have been injured by countertops.

 

 

 

Medical Radiation

Medical science has hunted tirelessly for the cause of cancer, spending billions of dollars studying the role of everything from genetics to industrial pollutants, to bacteria, viruses and cosmic radiation. But one highly qualified, highly contentious researcher says the cancer industry has overlooked one obvious source: itself. according to a study by a prominent radiation expert, 75% of new cancer cases can be blamed on ionizing forms of medical radiation from ubiquitous diagnostic tools, including X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, mammograms and fluoroscopy.

 

American doctors deliver some 200 million medical radiation procedures annually, not including dental x-rays, for everything from treating acne to monitoring pregnancies. Medical x-rays and other routine radiation treatments may have helped cause over half the cases of coronary heart disease and cancer in the US, according to Dr. John Gofman, professor emeritus of molecular and cell biology at the University of California at Berkeley and chairman of the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility. If the study's findings hold up, they could prove to be of enormous consequence: cancer and coronary heart disease accounted for about half of U.S. deaths in the last decade.

 

The study by Gofman is the first to establish a correlation between such radiation treatments and heart disease. Perhaps most disturbingly, as Gofman points out, there are currently almost no regulations on the use of low level radiation treatments. High doses of radiation have long been known to cause cancerous mutations. Gofman, however, claims to have proved that low level radiation is also far more dangerous than commonly believed.

 

Dr. Gofman is certainly no solitary crank. He holds a medical degree plus a PhD in nuclear and physical chemistry. He has been a lecturer at the University Of California School Of Medicine since 1947 and has accumulated a host of other appointments and credits. In the 1970s, he co-invented the VIDA heart monitor, a pocket computer worn by heart patients to detect and signal episodes of cardiac arrhythmias. He also invented a cardiographic electrode still widely used throughout hospitals in the U.S. Early in his career, he co-discovered uranium-233 and was instrumental in isolating the first milligram of plutonium. In the matter of radiation's hazards, however, he stands outside the mainstream.

 

His recent study draws upon earlier research by the University Of Washington School Of Medicine, which showed that the buildup of plaque that can block the arteries taking blood from the heart may be caused in part by a single source. Gofman believes that single source to be the kind of radiation that is used in routine medical procedures. The radiation, Gofman claims, causes mutations in heart muscle cells. These mutated cells proliferate, much like a cancerous tumor, and plaque builds up around them in the artery, he contends.

 

Gofman is a prominent but controversial figure in the field of radiation research. He was a key figure in the Manhattan Project, which spawned America's first atomic bomb. Many of his findings, such as his early connection between cholesterol and heart disease, have largely been incorporated into mainstream medical practice. "Dr. Gofman is a highly respected scientist in this field," says Dr. Henry McGill of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio. "He's been something of a maverick, but he's turned out to be right."

 

But some of his other findings, like his 1996 study claiming that mammograms help cause 75 per cent of breast cancers, have always been challenged. Gofman's latest study is likewise being met with skepticism. While many experts dispute Gofman's statistics, there is widespread support for the second part of his study, which calls for more regulations on the use of low-dose medical radiation. Currently, there are no nationwide guidelines on radiation dosages, and virtually no licensing requirements for radiation equipment operators.

 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have no regulatory power over doses used in x-rays or any other radiation procedure. They only regulate the actual machinery. Radiation policy is left to each state. Variations in state laws make it difficult to estimate how many medical radiation procedures administered each year are unwarranted, says Charles Hardin, executive director of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. "Some states have done very well in minimizing exposures," says Hardin. "Others have not done quite as good a job."

 

Moreover, according to Dr. Fred Mettler Jr., Chairman of Radiology at University of New Mexico, aside from California, no state requires physicians to be certified to use radiation equipment. "If you have a medical degree, you can get a machine," says Mettler. As a result, Gofman maintains, thousands of patients are exposed to unnecessarily high doses of radiation, boosting their risk of cancer and heart disease.

 

Gofman's study outlines ways in which medical procedures could reduce exposures by ninety per cent. To better assess the risks involved with low-dose radiation, Gofman also suggests using a dosimeter on each patient. "If we don't start a national program [of minimum dose and keeping dose records], we condemn a certain number of people to cancer and heart disease," he says. While his linkage between radiation and heart disease remains contested, even Gofman's critics concede he has a point. "I agree 100% with Gofman that we've got to reduce radiation exposure," says UCLA's Withers.

 

Various media generally refer to "Gofman, long-time opponent of nuclear power," but they almost never label people who deny harm from low-dose radiation as "long-time advocates of nuclear-power" or mammography, etc., or as people who have a personal conflict of interest because their grants or livelihoods come from interests who irradiate people.

 

Computer Aided Tomography

Computer Aided Tomography (CAT) is causing a revolution in the medical fields such as radiology, neurology, and nuclear medicine. By combining "ordinary" X-ray technology with sophisticated computer signal processing, it is possible to generate an image of the tissues of the body which is unobscured by other organs. An ordinary X-ray system takes pictures by passing X-rays through the body and recording the interference patterns onto a photograph. The different tissues in the body absorb the X-ray beams to varying degrees, and the film responds to the intensity of the X-rays received. The resulting photograph displays the accumulated absorption patterns to the tissue.CAT is similar to an "ordinary" X-ray system, but it uses multiple X-rays oriented at different angles around the body. A computer is then used to extrapolate a three-dimensional image from the various two-dimensional images.

 

A CT scan can radiate a human body with the equivalent of 100 to 1,000 full chest x-rays. A more conservative estimate of the dangers of CT scans comes to us from Yale University. Dr. James A. Brink, professor and chairman of diagnostic radiology at Yale tells us that one CT scan is equal to 100 to 250 chest x-rays. Can you image what even 100 chest x-rays could do to your own body?

 

Mercola has written, "CT scans deliver far more radiation than has been believed, and may contribute to 29,000 new cancers each year, along with 14,500 deaths." But still, CT scans in the US have leaped from 3 million in 1981 to 63 million in 2005. The Internet Journal of Radiology reports that, "Despite the advent and development of MRIs, a technique that is sophisticated and non-invasive, without exposing patients to radiation, the CT scan still remains one of the most commonly performed procedures in diagnostic radiology." Perhaps some medical doctors call for CT scans with such regularity because they increase billing totals. But for whatever the reason, irresponsible or ignorant medical doctors have so grossly subjected unaware Americans to so many CT scans that the total cumulated radiation exposure that an individual can suffer can be as high as that of a medium doze of radiation from an atomic bomb explosion.

 

In medical nuclear imaging, CAT scans are used to view organs containing a type of radiation known as gamma-emitting radionuclides. Original imaging methods called scintillation cameras are analogous to conventional X-ray pictures. However, the usefulness of scintillation cameras is limited because:

* Only organs with a high radionuclide concentration can be separated from their environment

* The resolution is limited, such that improving resolution reduces the detector efficiency

* The radioisotopes widely used have low-energy gamma radiation, which is subject to much absorption in the body causing the detector efficiency to vary significantly with depth, and to be affected by the presence of bone overlying the organ of interest.

 

Recent developments use tomographic reconstruction to provide a high-contrast image of organs and structures containing positron-emitting radioisotopes.

 

 

 

Plutonium

The crucial issue with plutonium is not volume or mass—it’s toxicity. In principle, using the Atomic Energy Control Board’s (AECB) regulatory limits, we can calculate that 0.1 micrograms can overdose one person with maximum safe exposure limits being placed at .56 micrograms maximum full body exposure and .25 micrograms for lung exposure. Experiments with beagle dogs suggest that about 27 millionths of a gram of insoluble plutonium would be sufficient to cause lung cancer in an adult human being with virtual certainty, with significant risks probably associated with far lower doses,” reports International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War.

 

US Government Program Secretly Injected Citizens with Plutonium, Uranium

In a secret program that is now admitted to be true, the United States government injected unknowing human ‘participants’ with highly toxic plutonium. It sounds like a bizarre torture scenario that you’d expect to see blamed on illegal terror organizations, but the individuals behind this crime are actually doctors working for the United States government. Disregarding the health of innocent citizens, the government testers were eager to see how unknowing participants suffered as a result of secret plutonium injection.

 

It began in 1945, when an employee at the Oak Ridge Nuclear Facility was in a car accident. Ebb Cade survived, but was taken in as a human participant in a disturbing study he did not consent to. It is important to note that this man was a fifty-three-year-old African American, as previous government trials have singled out African Americans and other minorities. The racist sterilization programs occurred between 1929 to 1974 under an admitted eugenics programs that officials claimed were ‘creating a better society’. Most victims were poor, black women who were ‘deemed unfit to be parents.’ Individuals as young as 10 were sterilized simply for not getting along with schoolmates or being promiscuous, and many parents were misled into sterilizing their children.

 

Ebb Cade was taken and bound to a bed with a broken arm and leg, where doctors interviewed him regarding his current state of health. After determining he was in a state of proper health, doctors secretly injected him with 4.7 micrograms of plutonium on April 10th. It is still unknown who exactly ordered the program within the U.S. government, as they have managed to disassociate themselves with the entire nefarious program. At the time of the injection, scientists were perfectly aware of the negative effects associated with radiation. With cancers and radiation sickness on the rise, these scientists knew exactly what they were doing — examining the effects of plutonium isotopes on living beings.

 

Prior to the tests on Cade, the scientists injected animals with plutonium and noted the severe adverse effects. In some cases, animals were even fed radioactive waste. In fact, one scientist received a face full of gas and required his stomach to be pumped along with a full face scrub in an attempt to eliminate the threat. The scientists made sure that they were given the full treatment after the exposure. Meanwhile, they were injecting individuals with plutonium.

 

Scientists took excretions from Cade over the next five days to see how much plutonium retained in his body. They also refused to set his broken bones until April 15th, and cut samples from the bone before doing so to examine the plutonium content in his bone tissue. Fifteen of his teeth were pulled for testing. After all of this, they never informed Cade what they were doing. One nurse said that the tortured Cade escaped in the middle of the night, and he was later found to die in 1953 of heart failure.

 

Sadly, Cade was not the last test experiment. Three human experiments followed, all cancer patients seeking treatment. Instead of treatment, the patients were injected with deadly plutonium in order for government scientists to see the effects. A man in his sixties with lung cancer, a woman in her fifties with breast cancer, and a “young man” with Hodgkin’s lymphoma were all given the poison. Conveniently, the third patient’s records are not available. He was injected with fifteen times more than any other individual, at 95 micrograms.

 

What followed is further widespread testing. The University of Rochester joined the program, injecting patients with not only plutonium but radioactive isotopes like polonium and uranium. Other institutions like the University of California soon followed suit.

 

Perhaps most concerning is the fact that this disgusting disregard for human health is not an isolated incident. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment is but one example of secret government human experiments that have run rampant throughout recent history. Taking place between 1932 and 1972,  Tuskegee, Alabama, the U.S. Public Health Service knowingly infected poor black men with syphillus in order to test the effects. These men thought that they were receiving free healthcare by the U.S. government.

 

The list goes on, targeting minorities and the disabled in particular. From forced sterilizations to incognito injections, there is a lengthy history of government testing that shows the blatant disregard for your health by the United States government and elsewhere. With this in mind, is it any wonder why the FDA keeps toxic substances like mercury unregulated among the food supply?

 

Feds Radiating Americans at Internal Checkpoints

While illegals and hardcore drugs flood into the country from across the border, authorities target truck drivers in Atlanta.

 

 

Federal authorities do not concern themselves about the flood of illegal immigrants and drugs crossing the border every day, they’re more worried about radiating American truck drivers at internal checkpoints with mobile scanners that shoot dangerous x-rays through both vehicles and passengers.

 

The federal government has acquired hundreds of backscatter x-ray scanners mounted in vans that they are now using to randomly scan vehicles, passengers and homes in complete violation of the 4th amendment and with wanton disregard for any health consequences.

 

An example of their expanding use was reported recently after federal agents from several agencies, including Homeland Security, the Department of Transportation, and the TSA, set up an internal checkpoint on Interstate 20 just west of Atlanta and detained truck drivers for half an hour or more at a “state-owned inspection station” while they were scanned with a bomb detection device.

 

Officials admitted there was no specific threat that justified the checkpoint, and although it was labeled a “counter-terror operation,” the scans were also being conducted in the name of “safety”.

 

Backscatter x-ray vision devices mounted on trucks are already being deployed inside the United States to scan passing individuals and vehicles in complete violation of the Fourth Amendment. Similar to naked airport body scanners, the devices fire x-rays outwards which are then absorbed by dense objects or the human body. Frequent exposure to low doses of radiation can cause cancer and birth defects, according to a report by the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety.

 

American Science & Engineering, a company based in Billerica, Massachusetts, has sold many of the devices to U.S. law enforcement agencies, who are already using them on the streets for “security” purposes.

 

“Without a warrant, the government doesn’t have a right to peer beneath your clothes without probable cause,” points out Marc Rotenberg, executive director of EPIC. “Even airport scans are typically used only as a secondary security measure. If the scans can only be used in exceptional cases in airports, the idea that they can be used routinely on city streets is a very hard argument to make.”

 

Everything you see being rolled out in the airports is eventually designed to hit the streets as Americans become prisoners in their own communities, constantly harassed, scanned and surveilled by an oppressive state.

 

Mobile scanners for crowds that would be used at football matches and other public events have already been announced, as have proposals to fit lamp posts with CCTV cameras that would X-ray scan passers-by and “undress them” in order to “trap terror suspects.”

 

Body and vehicle scanners are just one tool authorities plan to implement on a widespread basis as part of our deepening decline into a hi-tech militarized police state.

 

Homeland Security is already implementing technology to be enforced at “security events” which purportedly reads “mal-intent” on behalf of an individual who passes through a checkpoint. “Future Attribute Screening Technology” (FAST) checkpoints will conduct “physiological” and “behavioral” tests in order to weed out suspected terrorists and criminals.

 

Individuals who attend “security events” are led into trailers before they are interrogated as to whether they are terrorists while lie detector-style computer programs analyze their physiological responses. The subjects are asked about their whereabouts, and if they are attempting to smuggle bombs or recording devices into the “expo,” proving that the technology is intended to be used at public events and not just airports. Individuals who do not satisfy the first lie detector-style test are then asked “additional questions.”

 

The implementation of ‘Checkpoint USA’, where citizens are routinely stopped, searched and radiated by federal VIPER teams is further evidence of how America is crumbling into a Soviet-style police state where the presumption of innocent until proven guilty is abolished and the 4th amendment eviscerated.

 

Privacy organizations and civil rights lawyers need to activate immediately to bring lawsuits against the federal government for unleashing this tyranny upon the American people as part of the bid to create a chilling atmosphere that ends all dissent and makes the people fearful of their government as they are made to prove they are not criminals or terrorists on a day to day basis while a high-tech slave pen is constructed around their entire existence.

 

Big Sis’ Street Scanners Target Of FOIA Request

The Electronic Privacy Information Center is demanding that Big Sis spill the beans on street scanners as part of a FOIA request that seeks to unveil the truth behind Homeland Security’s hundreds of roaming backscatter devices that are now radiating Americans in their homes and vehicles at internal checkpoints in the name of “safety.”

 

 

 

As the national outrage surrounding the TSA’s use of naked body scanners at airports simmered, the feds had already purchased hundreds of x-ray scanners mounted in vans that were being used to randomly scan vehicles, passengers and homes in complete violation of the 4th amendment and with wanton disregard for any health consequences.

 

“EPIC cited previous DHS testing of body scanners on New Jersey’s PATH trains and the development of street-roaming backscatter vans. EPIC has also filed a lawsuit to suspend body scanner program. EPIC has called the devices “invasive, ineffective, and unlawful,” states the press release.

 

WSBTV reported on once instance of the mobile scanners being used to check trucks for explosive devices at an internal checkpoint set up by Homeland Security, the Department of Transportation, and the TSA. Officials admitted there was no specific threat that justified the checkpoint, and although it was labeled a “counter-terror operation,” the scans were also being conducted in the name of “safety.”

 

Despite polls showing the majority of Americans oppose the use of body scanners in airports, many travelers are unaware of the fact that the TSA and Big Sis are now roaming neighborhoods and highways with the same invasive technology.

 

 

 

 

Similar to naked airport body scanners, the devices fire x-rays outwards which are then absorbed by dense objects including the human body. Frequent exposure to low doses of radiation can cause cancer and birth defects, according to a report by the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety.

 

American Science & Engineering, a company based in Billerica, Massachusetts, has sold many of the devices to U.S. law enforcement agencies, who are already using them on the streets for “security” purposes.

 

Everything you see being rolled out in the airports is eventually designed to hit the streets as Americans become prisoners in their own communities, constantly harassed, scanned and surveilled by an oppressive state.

 

Mobile scanners for crowds that would be used at football matches and other public events have already been announced, as have proposals to fit lamp posts with CCTV cameras that would X-ray scan passers-by and “undress them” in order to “trap terror suspects”.

 

Body and vehicle scanners are just one tool authorities plan to implement on a widespread basis as part of our deepening decline into a hi-tech militarized police state.

 

Homeland Security is already implementing technology to be enforced at “security events” which purportedly reads “mal-intent” on behalf of an individual who passes through a checkpoint. The video below explains how “Future Attribute Screening Technology” (FAST) checkpoints will conduct “physiological” and “behavioral” tests in order to weed out suspected terrorists and criminals.

 

The clip shows individuals who attend “security events” being led into trailers before they are interrogated as to whether they are terrorists while lie detector-style computer programs analyze their physiological responses. The subjects are asked about their whereabouts, and if they are attempting to smuggle bombs or recording devices into the “expo,” proving that the technology is ntended to be used at public events and not just airports. Individuals who do not satisfy the first lie detector-style test are then asked “additional questions.”

 

 

 

 

The implementation of ‘Checkpoint USA’, where citizens are routinely stopped, searched and radiated by federal VIPER teams is further evidence of how America is crumbling into a Soviet-style police state where the presumption of innocent until proven guilty is abolished and the 4th amendment eviscerated.

 

With the devices already being used at highway checkpoints, DHS chief Janet Napolitano has now publicly outlined the plan for mobile scanners to be used on all forms of transit, from trains and the metro to boats.

 

Apathetic Americans who think they can avoid the clutches of Big Sis by merely refusing to fly are going to be in for a rude awakening when they see DHS scanners rolling around their neighborhoods taking naked pictures of their children while firing them up with dangerous radiation, all in the name of safety and security.

 

Low Level Radioactive Contamination in the Environment

Radiation is defined as the release of energy from an atom in the form of electromagnetic radiation or as radioactivity. As such, the energy is released as either a wave or a particle. When energy is released as a waveform, electromagnetic radiation results. Visible light, heat, ultraviolet radiation, radio waves, infrared waves, X rays, cosmic rays and gamma rays generate electromagnetic radiation. When energy is released as particulate matter, radioactivity exists. Radioactivity is generated when an atomic nucleus experiences decay and takes on the form of alpha and beta particles. However, this type of atomic decay may also cause waves of energy to be released as gamma rays.

 

While some forms of radiation are necessary and naturally occurring in life, others are artificially generated from various sources. Electromagnetic radiation that occurs naturally with heat, visible light and ultraviolet light is not typically known to cause danger or death to living tissue. Most harmful radiation results from radioactivity or electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in excess of those in visible light, such as with X-rays or gamma rays. This type of harmful electromagnetic radiation is known as ionizing radiation. With ionizing radiation, atoms are stripped of some electrons leaving free radicals, which are highly reactive ions that may damage living tissue and other genetic material.

 

Types and Sources of Low Level Radioactive Contamination

Radioactive contamination is considered to be the uncontrolled emission of radioactive material. Natural sources of radiation include naturally occurring emissions from the human body, underground gas emissions, cosmic rays from space and radioactive particulate matter that is emitted from soil and rocks. Radon, a radioactive gas, is thought by many scientists to be responsible for most naturally occurring doses of radiation absorbed by humans.

 

Radon is released as the uranium in earth decays. Radon enters buildings and structures through cracks in basement floors and walls, around piping and through the pores of block walls. The EPA estimates that dangerous levels of radon contaminate tens of millions of U.S. homes and radon may contribute to more than 20,000 cases of lung cancer death. While Geiger counters have shown to provide accuracy in radiation detection, they are not able to detect radon. A specialized device, known as a radon detector, must be acquired. Radon detectors may be purchased at most hardware and department stores.

 

Radioactive contamination is usually the result of emissions of radioactive material from artificial sources, which are not contained. Containment involves the storage of radioactive materials in designated and sealed containers. A radioactive monitor is usually used to determine if content is properly contained. These artificial sources of radiation include emissions from medical x rays, nuclear medicine, consumer products, the production and testing of nuclear weapons and the manufacture of nuclear fuels. Variations of Geiger counters are used to measure and monitor radiation from these sources.

 

Artificial sources of radioactive contamination include the earliest use of nuclear warfare during the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan by U.S. forces in 1945. In the bombing of Hiroshima, an atomic bomb known as the “Little Boy” bomb was used. Three days later, the bombing of Nagasaki also involved an atomic bomb known as the “Fat Man” bomb. The “Fat man” bomb was a plutonium-based bomb, which was less radioactive (outside of the moment of critical mass) than the uranium-based “Little Boy” bomb.

 

Artificial sources of radioactive contamination raise two primary concerns. Firstly, such contamination is avoidable and secondly, geographic and occupation nuances pose higher levels of exposure for certain segments of the population. During the 1950s and 1960s more than 600 nuclear tests were conducted at a Nevada testing site. The overall increase in radiation dosage for residents downwind to the site was as much as 7%. After the testing was moved underground, radiation detectors indicate that the overall increase in dosage dropped to less than 1%.

 

Radioactive fallout is also a source of artificial contamination. Radioactive fallout is contamination from nuclear activities in the atmosphere. During the 1950s and 1960s nuclear bombs were detonated in the upper atmosphere as weapons testing was performed in the U.S., the Soviet Union, Britain, China and France. Radioactive dust and debris were transported by wind and then settled to contaminate water, land and food supplies around the globe. Radiation monitoring indicated that while lighter particles tended to remain in the atmosphere for years beyond the testing, heavier particles tended to settle downwind of the explosions. Radioactive fallout has been detected at the Windscale plutonium processing plant in Britain, Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania and the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor facility in Moscow. During the cold war era, fallout shelters were established in many U.S. urban communities to provide shelter, minimize risk to either accidental or deliberate radioactive fallout and provide treatment for contamination.

 

Dirty bombs, more formally known as Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD) are weapons developed during the 1950s and 1960s that include a combination of radioactive materials and conventional explosives. These weapons were designed to disperse radioactive material over large areas without causing severe illness or death. The design provided for the conventional explosive components to have the most lethal and immediate effect. The radioactive component was designed to incite psychological damage, such as panic and fear, rather then physical damage. Geneva Protocol prohibits the use of any weapon designed to induce biological damage. Subsequent tests and analysis of detected radiation levels indicates that radiation exposure was high in individuals if they remained in the affected area for a period of one year. Further analysis of the effects of radiation detected after the Chernobyl fallout indicates that effects after five or more years are minimal.

 

Other sources of low level radiation as indicated by the EPA include the following:

Consumer products

Smoke detectors

Older model watches and clocks that glo

Smoke detectors

Older model watches and clocks that glow in the dark

Ceramics

Antique greenish or yellowish glassware

Commercial fertilizers

Camping lantern mantels

Salt substitutes

Naturally occurring sources in food

Food glazes and food containers

Cell Phones

Microwaves

Television

Sun lamps and tanning devices

Food irradiation

Gamma rays, electron beams and x rays

Mail irradiation

Electron beam technology and some powerful x-ray devices

Construction materials

Concrete, granite bricks, cinder blocks

Tobacco smoke

Cigarettes

Medical Procedures

X rays, mammograms, CT scans, fluoroscopy,

Contaminated Land Sites

30 states identified as having known releases or threatened releases of hazardous radioactive substances from:

Accidental spills

Violations of regulations

Poor waste management and storage practices

Sealed Radioactive Sources

Metal containers and specialized industrial containers with sealed radioactive content used in:

Manufacturing

Chemical processing

Construction

Radiography

Coastal engineering

Oil refinery

Energy production

Agriculture

Dust and static control

TENORM - technologically-Enhanced, Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

Extraction and processing  of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil, rock formations and water bodies that expose or concentrate radioactive material for the purpose of:

Mining

Waste treatment

Water treatment

Energy production

 

Amounts of Low Level Radioactive Contamination

Contamination may exist on surfaces or in volumes of material or air. Radiation that contaminates living tissue is usually measured as volume contamination. Radiation monitors and radiation meters are used to determine the amount or volume of contamination.

 

Volume Contamination

The energy released during radiation is measured in rads. A rad is a measure of the absorbed radiation dose deposited in tissue. One rad is equivalent to an absorbed dose of 0.01 joules of energy per kilogram of tissue. Another measure of absorbed radiation dose is a gray. One gray is equivalent to 1 joule of energy per kilogram of tissue. As such, one gray is equal to 100 rad.

 

A measure used to assess damage to living tissue by a particular type or energy of radiation is known as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Measures of the RBE of radiation are also known as quality factors or potency factors and it is denoted as Q. This factor is used determining the risk of radiation. Such risk is measured in rem, which is short for Roentgen. A rem is equivalent to one rad times the RBE of radiation. Another measure of risk is the Sievert (Sv), which is equivalent to one gray times the RBE of radiation. As such, one Sv is equal to 100 rem.

 

It should be noted that alpha and beta particles are limited in their potential to penetrate the human body. X rays and gamma rays, on the other hand, are more potent and will penetrate the body. While most Geiger counters will detect radioactivity, only some specially designed Geiger counters provide the capability to differentiate gamma and x rays from alpha and beta radiation.

 

Surface Contamination

Surface contamination is measured as becquerel (Bq) per square meter (m2). This unit of radioactivity per unit area may apply to either fixed or removable surface contamination. Fixed contamination implies that the radioactive material cannot be spread, but is measurable by a radioactivity meter. Removable surface contamination may spread. A properly calibrated radiation detection unit will detect uncontained contaminants at points beyond the surface. Another measure of surface contamination is disintegrations per minute (dpm) per square centimeter (cm2).

1 dpm/cm2 = 166(2/3) Bq/m2

 

The Effects of Low level Radioactivity on the Human Body

The effects radioactivity on the human body depends on the type and dose of radiation as well as the part of the body affected. Radiation sickness, also known as radiation poisoning and more formally known as acute radiation syndrome, typically indicates acute medical problems resulting from large dosage exposure to ionizing radiation over a short period of time from either natural or artificial radiation sources.

Ionizing radiation has the effect of disturbing and interfering with cell division so that in the same manner that radiation may cause cancer; it is also used in the treatment of cancer.

Low-level radiation is radiation that measures less than 200 rems (2 Sv). Before Chernobyl and Fukushima, for the average American citizen, eighty-two percent of the exposure to radiation was from natural sources. In a lifetime, an individual can expect to receive between 7 and 14 rems of radiation from natural sources. The other eighteen percent of exposure is from artificial sources. The amount of radiation acquired from artificial sources is dependent upon a number of factors that are responsible to put an individual at risk of exposure. Some human symptoms from various low-levels of radiation are as follows.

 

Rem

Sv

Symptoms

Effects

5 – 20

0.05 - 0.2

None

Potential for cancer and mutation of genetic material.

20 – 50

0.2 - 0.5

None

Temporary decrease in red blood cell count.

5 – 100

0.5 – 1

Mild radiation sickness accompanied by headaches and an increased risk of infection. <

Possible male sterility

<>100 - 200

1 - 2

Light radiation poisoning accompanied by fatigue, vomiting and loss of appetite, with a 10% chance of fatality after 30 days.

Depressed immune system, extended convalescence, increased risk of infection, possible male sterility and spontaneous abortion or stillbirth.

 

Radiation contamination is most harmful to bone marrow, embryonic tissue and lymphoid tissue cells, testes and ovaries. Lymphatic tissue is responsible to produce white blood cells (WBCs). The onset of radiation sickness is almost always accompanied by a reduction in WBC production within 72 hours, while recovery is first indicated by an increase in WBC production.

Any exposure to radiation increases the risk of cancer, birth defects and genetic damage. Some of the other common and more chronic conditions that result from radiation contamination include hypertension, stroke, diabetes, heart disease and renal disease.

Airport Full Body Scanners

Airport Backscatter x-ray machines, sometimes called "virtual strip searches" for their ability to allow security men to see beneath people's clothing, are setting the stage for a future epidemic of cancer. Thus far, news coverage has focused almost exclusively around the more emotionally charged, privacy concerns. But the looming issue is whether repeated bombardment with radiation is "planting the seeds" of disease. In light of the abundance of evidence attesting to radiation's proven dangers, it is unfathomable that any competent, unbiased doctor could take the position that x-rays do not pose a menace to all living cells through which they pass, leaving behind a painful and costly trail of destruction.

Drawing on sources like The Mayo Clinic and The Radiological Society of North America as well as interviews with prominent radiologists, molecular biologists, and medical doctors, ionizing (penetrating) radiation in any dose, no matter how tiny, causes genetic mutations, which set all living cells exposed on the path to cancer. X-rays are considered ionizing radiation. However,  the manufacturer of the new Backscatter machines, currently being piloted at several airports, along with the FDA have given assurances of the device's "complete safety" for everyone. It is undisputed within scientific circles that even a single x-ray increases a three-month-old's chances of developing cancer in later life by at least 10 times, and yet they have plowed ahead approving up to 5000 backscatter images per person, per year. It's unconscionable.

Predictably the product's manufacturer spins out the usual half truths, citing "very low level of x-rays'" and boasting the opinion, packaged to appear as fact, that, "The system is completely safe for all persons..." Back peddling authorities are now trying to appease the public by saying everyone will be allowed to opt out. Maybe, for now.

Also a risk are other non-medical uses of radiation, including pre-employment, dental and chiropractic x-rays, newly developed "Silent Guardian" microwave crowd control devices and even police radar beams pointed at drivers that might contribute to cataracts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuclear Power

In a report certain to cause fear and loathing in the global nuclear industry, an eminent French research institute published a study in the International Journal of Cancer, which notes increased rates of leukemia in children living close to French nuclear power plants (NPPs.) The study found an Acute lymphoblastic leukemia rate twice as high among children under the age of 15 living within a 3.1-mile radius of France's 19 nuclear power plants. The study has ominous implications for the future of the nuclear industry in France, which opted for a full-blown nuclear energy program with minimal public debate after the first oil crisis in 1974 and whose 19 NPPs’ 58 reactors now provide more than 78 percent of the country’s electricity.

 

As the debate over nuclear power has become so vitriolic, perhaps the best thing for proponents on both sides of the issue is simply to read the International Journal of Cancer study and draw your own conclusions, and then decide if you want your children or grandchildren living within three miles of a “safe” NPP.

 

Nuclear energy has caused many disasters and is extremely dangerous. The nations of the world now have enough nuclear bombs to kill every person on Earth several times. Disasters such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island clearly illustrate the catastrophic potential of nuclear reactors. The disaster at Russia's Ural mountains shows the destructive potential of nuclear waste. The damage to people caused by radiation isn't treatable with current medical technology. Even if nuclear energy is an effective source of energy, now is simply not the time to implement it.

 

The two strongest nations--Russia and the United States--have about 50,000 nuclear weapons between them. What if there were to be a nuclear war? Or what if nuclear weapons were launched by accident? Nuclear explosions produce nuclear radiation. The nuclear radiation harms the cells of the body which can make people sick or even kill them. Illness can strike people years after their exposure to nuclear radiation. Because more and more countries are obtaining nuclear weapons, the threat of a nuclear weapon being detonated has become so great as to be unbearable.

 

In 1979, the cooling system failed at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Radiation leaked, forcing tens of thousands of people to flee. The program was solved minutes before a total meltdown would have occurred. Fortunately, there were no deaths. In 1986, a much worse disaster struck Russia's Chernobyl nuclear power plant. This time, a great deal of radiation leaked. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to the radiation. Several dozen died within a few days. In the future, thousands more may die of cancer caused by the radiation.

 

Nuclear reactors also have waste disposal problems. Reactors produce nuclear waste products, which emit dangerous radiation. Because they could kill people who touch them, even in future years, nuclear waste cannot be thrown away like ordinary garbage. Currently, many nuclear wastes are stored in special pools at the nuclear reactors. The United States plans to move its nuclear waste to a remote underground dump during the late 1990s. In 1957, at a dump site in Russia's Ural Mountains, several hundred miles from Moscow, buried nuclear wastes mysteriously exploded killing dozens of people.

 

Many of the victims in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Chernobyl died of diseases (particularly cancers) caused by radiation. There is no known medical technique to determine the amount of radiation a person has been exposed to. In addition, there are only replacement techniques available to treat these cancers. For example, leukemia (cancer of the blood) can only be "cured" with a bone marrow transplant to replenish the body's supply of white blood cells. At a major disaster such as Chernobyl, it would be impossible to get willing donors with specific blood types to all the thousands of cancer victims. With the threat of a nuclear meltdown and no relatively effective treatment technology available, the nations of the world cannot take the risk of having nuclear power plants.

 

Nuclear Waste

The planet's water cycle is the main way radiation gets spread about the environment. When radioactive waste mixes with water, it is ferried through this water cycle. Radionuclides in water are absorbed by surrounding vegetation and ingested by local marine and animal life. Radiation can also be in the air and can get deposited on people, plants, animals, and soil. People can inhale or ingest radionuclides in air, drinking water, or food. Depending on the half life of the radiation, it could stay in a person for much longer than a lifetime. The half-life is the amount of time it takes for a radioactive material to decay to one half of its original amount. Some materials have half-lives of more than 1,000 years!

 

According to a report from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, it will take 3 million years for radioactive waste stored in the United States as of 1983 to decay to background levels. So, presently, the only solution is to store the waste in a place so that the environment won't be contaminated. The problem with storing nuclear waste is both political as well as technological. In terms of politics, no one wants it stored near them. So there's much dispute as to where radioactive waste should be stored. In addition, storing so much waste is a major technological challenge. According to a report issued by the British Parliament, "In considering arrangements for dealing safely with such wastes, man is faced with time scales that transcend his experience."

 

Radioactive wastes come in many different forms including the following:

* protective clothing of people in contact with radioactive materials

* the remains of lab animals used in experiments with radionuclides

* cooling water, used fuel rods, and old tools and parts from nuclear power plants

* mill tailings from uranium-enrichment factories

* old medical radiation equipment from hospitals and clinics

* used smoke detectors which contain radioactive americium-241 sensors

Types of Nuclear Waste

Nuclear waste is divided into several categories. High-level waste consists mostly of spent nuclear reactor fuel from commercial power plants and military facilities, as well as reprocessed materials which can emit large amounts of radiation for hundreds of thousands of years. Commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. alone produce 3,000 tons of high-level waste each year. The amount of spent fuel removed annually from the approximately 100 reactors in the U.S. would fill a football field to a depth of one foot. When spent fuel is removed from a reactor core, it still emits millions of rems of radiation.

 

In the absence of high-level waste repositories, nuclear power plants generally store their spent fuel rods in lead-lined concrete pools of water. These pools somewhat contain the spread of gamma radiation by keeping the rods relatively cool. They also help prevent fission. The average commercial power plant puts 60 used assemblies into temporary storage each year and will probably continue to do so until the year 2000, when responsibility for spent fuel will be transferred to the Department of Energy. Space is running out at many plants though.

 

The plants have another option of storing their spent fuel at other plants still under construction. It is theoretically possible to reduce the amount of storage space that spent fuel rods require by removing them from their assemblies, bundling them tightly, and then packing them into heavily shielded dry storage, but repacking these highly radioactive rods may present too much of a challenge.

 

For long-term storage of high-level waste, a waterproof, geologically stable repository and leak-proof waste container is required. Packaging has to be tailored to the volume of the waste, the actual radioactive isotopes of elements it contains, how radioactive it is, its isotopes' half-lives, and how much heat it still generates. One technique for packaging high-level wastes involves melting them with glass and pouring the molten material into impermeable containers. The containers could be buried in soil or in a rock pile and surrounded by fill material and a barrier wall. From the 1940s through the 1960s, barrels of radioactive waste were frequently dumped in oceans. This ended in 1970 when the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) determined that at least one-fourth of these barrels were leaking. A new, possibly safer proposal under consideration for long-term ocean storage includes offshore drilling and a procedure known as self-burial. In offshore drilling, holes would be drilled into the seabed and filled with barrels of waste. In self-burial, specially shaped barrels would be dumped and left to sink to the ocean floor.

 

Geologic disposal is currently the most popular solution for waste disposal. During the 1980s, the U.S. government invested more than $2 billion into geologic disposal. In this form of disposal, mined tunnels with deep holes for waste canisters would be built using conventional mining techniques. Monitoring and waste retrieval would be relatively easy. In 1987, a site was chosen for the first permanent high-level commercial nuclear waste storage repository in the United States--Yucca Mountain, 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Expected to cost up to $15 billion, this repository is scheduled to go into operation by the year 2010.

 

Over the years, a number of other ideas for high-level waste disposal have been proposed and, at least temporarily, abandoned. One was disposal in space, in which sealed containers of radioactive material would be sent up into distant orbits. This would be an expensive and risky operation, as problems on the launch pad or in space could expose the earth and atmosphere to an enormous amount of radiation. Another suggestion was burying waste under the Antarctic ice sheets. However, this would risk irradiating that area and the surrounding sea. A much safer idea, which would render disposal unnecessary, is to bombard radioactive waste with subatomic particles to transform it into less harmful isotopes. Unfortunately, this attractive proposal awaits still unrealized technology.

 

Mill Tailings

Mill tailings left over when ore is refined and processed is the largest by volume of any form of radioactive waste. Only 1% of uranium ore contains uranium--the rest is left on-site as sand like residue. These tailings are generally left outdoors in huge piles, where they blow around, releasing radioactive materials into the surrounding air and water. By 1989, some 140 million tons of mill tailings had accumulated in the United States alone; with 10 to 15 million tons added each year. Although their radiation is generally less concentrated than other types of waste, some of the isotopes in these tailings are long-lived and can be hazardous for many thousands of years.

 

Until their radioactive risk was known, mill tailings were sometimes used as foundation and building materials, especially in western states. When their risk was discovered, these materials in the buildings had to be monitored. These monitored sites are generally safer, although some groundwater contamination still occurs at them. It has been recommended that tailings be stored underground in clay pits, far from population centers.

 

Low-Level Waste

Low-level wastes are usually defined in terms of what they are not. They are not spent fuel, milling tailings, reprocessed materials, or transuranic materials. Low-level waste includes the remainder of radioactive wastes and materials generated in power plants, such as contaminated reactor water, plus those wastes created in medical laboratories, hospitals, and industry. Wastes in this category usually, although not always, release smaller amounts of radiation for a shorter amount of time. "Low level" does not mean "not dangerous," though. Although its radioactivity is usually less concentrated than that of high-level waste, low-level waste can be dangerous for up to tens of thousands of years.

 

Most low-level wastes come from reactors. These wastes can be divided up into two categories:

* Fuel wastes are fission products that leak out of fuel rods and into cooling water.

* Nonfuel wastes result when stray neutrons bombard anything in the core other than fuel--such as the reactor vessel itself--and cause them to become radioactive.

 

The remainder of low-level wastes comes from industry and institutional sources, including pharmaceutical plants, universities, and medical facilities. Instead of going to low-level waste dumps, these wastes are often kept on-site for the short time it takes for them to decay to safe levels. Then they are deposited into sanitary landfills. However, it is likely that liquid wastes are literally poured down the drain, whether or not they are still radioactive.

 

Low-level waste landfills were first built in the 1960s. In near-surface land burial, containers of waste fill a trench and are covered and surrounded by compacted earth. There are currently a few burial grounds in the U.S. to which most commercial low-level waste materials emitting detectable amounts of radiation are sent. A few other landfills are currently inactive due to severe waste-containment problems and radioactive leakage. Waste containers in near-surface landfills are prone to corrosion, particularly in moist climates. Landfills provide a false sense of comfort because they are "out of sight, out of mind." More worthwhile alternatives include above-ground landfills and to store waste at existing nuclear plant sites.

There are a number of unresolved issues regarding disposal of low-level wastes. The current institution control period (the amount of time a waste site must remain under guard after it has been filled and closed) is only 100 years. Yet the hazards presented by some low-level wastes can continue for thousands of years. What will keep future generations from uncovering and being contaminated by these substances?

Denial

There are very few people in radiation health science who are independent from interests who irradiate people. In real science, undistorted by corporate and political pressures, most controversies do get resolved, because all the participants are competing to find the truth. But not all participants in low-dose radiation health science are necessarily in a disinterested search for the truth. The reason that the low-dose radiation controversy may never be solved by normal scientific procedures is that many participants may not be in a normal or genuine scientific search for the truth. It would be naive to expect evidence and logic to persuade such people.

Several notable events have intensified the campaign to deny harm from low-dose radiation: (a) The Chernobyl accident, and the resulting "need" to deny health damage, (b) The estimate that it will cost over $250 billion to clean up nuclear pollution from our weapons facilities, and the resulting desire to spend much less, (c) The difficulty of obtaining public approval for the electric utilities to transfer their radioactive poisons to Yucca Mountain and other rad-waste dumps, and (d) The decisions to persuade women to take yearly mammograms (low-dose x-rays).

Today, a growing number of people associated with the nuclear and medical industries assert, falsely, "there is no evidence that exposure to low-dose radiation causes any cancer--the risk is only theoretical," or the risk is "utterly negligible," or "the accidental exposures were below the safe level," and even "there is reasonably good evidence that exposure to low-dose radiation is beneficial and lowers the cancer rate." No one at all denies that high doses of ionizing radiation are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Such doses are not at issue. It is public resistance to low doses which seriously threatens the future of powerful radiation interests.

While the media generally identify conflicts of interest in the tobacco "wars," the media rarely do so when they quote someone who denies harm from low-dose radiation. The National Council on Radiation Protection is treated by the media like a neutral scientific body, but its activities depend on the "generous support" of about 60 organizations, a list overwhelmingly dominated by interests who irradiate people. It is to NCRP's credit that the list is very public, and appears at the end of every NCRP report. A Partial list:

American College of Nuclear Physicians

American College of Radiology

American Dental Association

American Hospital Radiology Administrators

American Medical Association

American Nuclear Society

American Radium Society

American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Association of University Radiologists

Defense Nuclear Agency

Edison Electric Institute

Electric Power Research Institute

Health Physics Society

Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

NASA

National Cancer Institute

Radiological Society of North America

Society of Nuclear Medicine

US Dept. of Energy.

US Dept. of Labor

US EPA

US Navy

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

In 1990, the government-sponsored BEIR Report (p.172) estimated that if the population received an extra 100 milli-rems of dose every year (approximately equivalent to doubling the natural "background" rate), the dose-increment would induce extra cancer fatality in one out of every 400 people per lifetime. According to Gofman, it is quite possible that a permanent doubling of the "background" dose of ionizing radiation, worldwide, would very gradually double mankind's burden of inherited afflictions--from mental handicaps to predispositions to emotional disorders, cardio-vascular diseases, cancers, immune-system disorders, and so forth. Such a doubling would be the greatest imaginable crime against humanity.

Today's radiation enthusiasts do admit they lack definitive evidence that low-dose radiation is harmless or directly beneficial. They admit it's a "maybe." If today's radiation enthusiasts sincerely care only about the good of humanity, then why are they not the ones actively urging reduction of radiation exposure until they can provide definitive evidence? Under circumstances of uncertainty, isn't dose-reduction what people of goodwill would want for their fellow humans? Ionizing radiation is a proven and ubiquitous mutagen to which humans everywhere are actually exposed (medically, environmentally, and occupationally). Moreover, unlike some chemical mutagens, ionizing radiation is capable of inflicting every possible kind of mutation, from a single "base-change" to deletion of entire genes. It is especially potent at inducing the kind of complex genetic injuries which cannot be repaired. None of those three statements is in dispute. At the very time when more and more dreadful afflictions (not only cancer) are discovered to be gene-based, one might expect a very loud consensus in favor of immediate reduction of exposure to ionizing radiation. Instead, we see the opposite: A growing effort to belittle the menace of this particular mutagen.

 

 

 

Plutonium storage vault at DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Colorado.

 

 

Rocky Flats area still as contaminated with plutonium as 40 years ago

World stockpiles hold about 500 tons of plutonium, which is an enough to make 100,000 nuclear weapons. The UK—which has the largest civilian stockpile of plutonium, has around 90 tons. That number goes up quite a bit when you account for the amount locked in nuclear waste—around 620 tons in the United States alone, a figure that increases by 23 tons every year.

 

Driven by concerns that running the Jefferson Parkway across a strip of land along the eastern edge of the Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge would stir up clouds of plutonium-laden dust, Boulder's Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center commissioned a study last fall to gauge contamination levels in the area. The newly released results show the area is as contaminated by radioactive plutonium now as it was 40 years ago, before the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant, which operated on that site, was closed and cleaned up. "The material is still there; it's still on the surface," said Marco Kaltofen, president of Boston Chemical Data Corp., the contractor hired by the Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center. Still, officials with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment insist the amount of plutonium contamination at the eastern edge of the site is well below levels that would be dangerous to human health.

 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife service, which manages the refuge, agreed in December to a land swap that would add 617 acres to the refuge's southwest border in exchange for giving up a 300-foot-wide right of way along the refuge's eastern edge, adjacent to Indiana Street. The right of way would be used to build the proposed Jefferson Parkway, which would nearly complete a beltway around the Denver metro area. Though the land swap is now being held up by several lawsuits -- including one filed by the cities of Golden and Superior, and another, filed last week, by two environmental groups -- Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center officials fear that any construction in the area could be dangerous.

 

The center joined other concerned citizens in asking the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to test the soils on the strip of land that would be used for the parkway. When federal officials said they planned to rely on testing of the area that was done in the past, Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center hired its own contractor to test the soils. But after being denied access to the refuge for testing, that contractor was forced to take samples from just outside the fence along Indiana Street.

 

The results show that the plutonium contamination in the area is roughly the same now as it was four decades ago, according to Kaltofen. "Essentially, what people found back in the '70s is still true," Kaltofen said. "There is a locus of plutonium contamination on the eastern side of the Rocky Flats site -- this is material beyond the fence line that pretty much follows Indiana north and south -- that hasn't changed." Kaltofen said the finding is surprising because he would have predicted that weathering over the decades, especially from the area's stiff winds, would have dispersed the particles over time. "One explanation is that there's as much material coming from the central part of the site that's replacing any material that's eroding or blowing away," he said.

 

Background Levels

Kaltofen's results showed levels of plutonium isotopes in the area ranged from 0.019 picoCuries per gram of soil to 1.579 picoCuries per gram. By contrast, Kaltofen said the background plutonium contamination in the West tends to be no more than 0.01 picoCuries per gram. But the question of how much background radiation is "normal" is contested, according to LeRoy Moore, a longtime nuclear watchdog with Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center. He says the baseline background radiation level that set the standard for the Rocky Flats cleanup was 0.04 picoCuries per gram of soil, four times the amount that Kaltofen believes is the average for the West. "If the average background really should be lower, then maybe the cleanup is not as protective (as it should be)," said Moore.

 

But the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service says the amount of plutonium contamination found in the soil in the right of way is not at unsafe levels. The agency based its statement on older measurements -- which Kaltofen and Moore agree are similar to recent observations -- and sought expertise from both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

 

In a joint letter written last September, officials with the EPA and Colorado's health department say that the risk of excessive cancer incidence for people who work at the refuge is below standards set by the state and the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. The two agencies point out that a construction worker might have a greater exposure to the plutonium through inhaling dust than an average refuge worker, but they also note that construction workers will be exposed to the contamination for much shorter periods of time. "Due to the very short exposure duration, the very low levels of residual plutonium on the strip of land proposed for transfer and the calculated low radiation dose, the risk to a construction worker would be at or below (that of a regular refuge worker)," the letter reads.

 

Risks of exposure

David Lucas, chief of refuge planning for Rocky Flats, said the agency took the possible risks of plutonium contamination very seriously and that the Fish and Wildlife Service's efforts to reach out to the EPA and the Colorado health department reflect that. "At the end of the day, the Fish and Wildlife Service gave this a hard look," he said. "We didn't rubber stamp anything. I think our comfort level is where it needs to be."

 

Moore said he disagreed with the Fish and Wildlife Service's standards for how much plutonium exposure is safe. "I don't think the standards that exist protect the public or protect the workers," he said. Moore said he has shared his recent testing results with the Fish and Wildlife Service, and he's calling for the government to take a closer look at what background radiation levels should really be set at. And in the meantime, he's also considering what the Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center's next move should be if the pending lawsuits fail to stop the project from going forward. "We're watching the situation with the Jefferson Parkway closely, and we're working with other people and other organizations to think about the best approaches we need to take to make sure the public is well-informed about the danger of plutonium," Moore said.

 

 

Hanford Nuclear Reservation

Razor wire surrounds Hanford’s makeshift borders while tattered signs warn of potential contamination and fines for those daring enough to trespass. This vast stretch of eastern Washington, covering more than 580 square miles of high desert plains, is rural Washington at its most serene. But it’s inaccessible for good reason: It is, by all accounts, a nuclear wasteland.

 

During World War II, the Hanford Reservation was chosen by the federal government as a location to carry out the covert Manhattan Project. Later, plutonium produced at Hanford provided fuel for the "Fat Man" bomb that President Truman ordered to be dropped on Nagasaki in 1945, killing upward of 80,000 Japanese. In all, nine nuclear reactors were built at Hanford, the last of which ceased operation in 1987. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency now estimates that as a result of the nuclear work done at Hanford's facilities, 43 million cubic yards of radioactive waste were produced and more than 130 million cubic yards of soil ultimately were contaminated.

 

During Hanford's lifespan, 475 billion gallons of radioactive wastewater were released into the ground. Radioactive isotopes have made their way up the food chain in the Hanford ecosystem at an alarming rate. Coyote excrement frequently lights up Geigers, as these scavengers feast on varmints that live beneath the earth's surface. Deer also have nuclear radiation accumulating in their bones as a result of consuming local shrubbery and water. The EPA has deemed Hanford the most contaminated site in North America—a jarring fact, as the Columbia River, lifeline for more than 10,000 farmers and dozens of commercial fisheries in the Pacific Northwest, surges along Hanford's eastern boundary.

 

In 1989 Hanford changed from a nuclear-weapons outpost to a massive cleanup project. Since then, the site has become the largest and most costly environmental remediation the world has ever seen.

 

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the agency that oversees energy and the safety of handling nuclear material, supervises the cleanup efforts, which are currently undertaken by Bechtel National Inc.—infamous for its mishandling of Iraq reconstruction efforts—and a handful of other companies like URS and CH2M HILL. But despite more than two decades of cleanup efforts and billions of dollars spent, only a tiny fraction of Hanford's radioactivity has been safely contained. And the final costs for the Hanford cleanup process could exceed $120 billion—higher even than the $100 billion tab for the International Space Station.

 

Now outrage is brewing at Hanford. Some prominent employees working on the project are blowing the whistle over what they believe to be dismissals of internal scientific assessments, as well as alleged abuses of managerial power that have been called to the attention of the Obama Administration, to no avail. These staffers point to institutional failures within the DOE and Bechtel as toxic as the nuclear waste they're tasked to clean up, asserting that the DOE lacks critical experts on staff to oversee the project and Bechtel rushed through shoddy design plans in order to pocket some quick cash. The consequences are not only jeopardizing safety and putting the project at risk of failure, they are also likely to cost taxpayers even more money should fatally flawed construction ultimately require a complete overhaul.

 

"We need alternatives to the current plan right now," Dr. Donald Alexander, a high-level DOE physical chemist working at Hanford, says in distress. "We need a different design and more options on the table. This appears to be a hard thing for [DOE and Bechtel] management to accept. They have spent years of time and money on a bad design, and it will delay the project even more."

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Zeolite Clay

The unique structure of clays gives them unusual filtering capabilities for absorbing toxic wastes, including radioactive contaminants. In just one gram of zeolite clay, for instance, the three dimensional structure of the channels in its crystalline structure provide up to several hundred square meters of surface area on which absorption (and channel reactions) can take place. The zeolites are particularly useful for removing heavy metals and radioactive species from water.

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While you can take an Epson salt or Clorox bath, you can also take a radiation detox bath of zeolite clay that’s formulated with special herbs for the process.

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Zeolites are natural, inert, non-toxic, environmentally friendly substances that are known to remove toxic metals from waste water, land, septic systems and the air. Zeolites can adsorb huge amounts of materials such as ions or gas molecules. Zeolite clay has an unusual crystalline structure and is tetrahedral in shape, similar to a honeycomb appearance. The channels and holes in the sponge-like structure of zeolite have a uniform shape and size. It is this unique crystalline structure that gives zeolite clay such unusual capabilities of filtering, mineralizing, and absorbing toxic wastes. In one gram of zeolite, the channels in its structure provide up to several hundred square meters of surface area on which adsorption and chemical reactions can take place. Its unique structure acts like sieves, or “shape-selective catalyst,” catching only molecules small enough to fit into the cavities, while excluding larger molecules.

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There are around 50 different kinds of natural zeolites and about 150 synthetic versions with varying physical and chemical properties.  Natural zeolites were discovered as major constituents of numerous volcanic tuffs in saline-like deposits. Zeolite contains the minerals potassium, calcium, silicon, hydrogen, oxygen, aluminum and sodium. Zeolite clay has been beneficial in remineralizing and re-establishing pollution control in the soil and for use in hydroponic plant growth. The high purity of the natural deposits has aroused considerable commercial interest in the United States and abroad. The name “zeolite” literally means “boiling stones.”

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Zeolite clay has been a medium for air filters, water filters, and odor control.  It is environmentally friendly for waste dump sites and has been used as a filter medium for the removal of radioactive wastes and for the removal of heavy chemical toxins and heavy metals such as iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper, deemed hazardous by the government, from individuals as well as from mining and water waste sites. Zeolite clay has been used successfully for the extraction of radionuclides from human beings and animals.

 

The natural zeolites can absorb up to 30% of their dry weight of gases, such as nitrogen or ammonia. Toxic gases, chemicals, mold, mildew, formaldehyde, and other toxins are drawn by the natural negative electrical charge into the crystal micro pores of the clay. The odors and gases are removed, not merely covered up. Research is now being done by several companies for its use as an absorbent of excess moisture, molds, and fungi. “Pouches” of zeolite clay are now available for, not only odor control, but the elimination of toxic gases and chemicals, smoke, and radioactive gases. These “pouches” are placed in a room, and act like a magnetic sponge.

 

The British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) uses this specific type of zeolite to remove radioactive strontium and cesium and, therefore, reduces the radioactivity of liquid waste discharged into the Irish Sea. The Hanfor, Washington nuclear weapons facility, uses this same kind of zeolite to revent contamination. This type of zeolite also had a role in the cleanup after the atomic energy plant accident at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania. A Swedish study showed another kind of zeolite could decontaminate live animals and meat affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

 

Radioactive Scrap Metals

Radioactive metals - gold, silver, carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel, and copper - are being made available for recycling. There are more than 1,577,000 metric tons of irradiated scrap metal available. The metal comes from decommissioned nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons and the oil and gas industries, for the most part, and tons of steel from buildings that contained radioactive substances is also part of the "hot metal" scrap.

 

In 1997, the NRC and the DOE established the National Center of Excellence for Metal Recycling. The Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR) was formed in 1995 and is based in Knoxville , Tennessee . If they can get the safety standards lowered to 10 millirems per year of exposure to radioactive materials, this would allow them to recycle those thousands of tons of radioactive material into consumer goods. Studies show that long-term exposure to low levels of radiation can be more hazardous than short term exposure to high levels, resulting in a six to eight times greater cancer risk.

 

"We're looking at an exponential increase," said Diane D'Arrigo, a staff member at the Nuclear Information and Resource Service. "Think about the metal you come into contact with every day. Your IUD, and your bracelets, your silverware, the zipper on your crotch, the coins in your pocket, frying pans, belt buckles, that chair you're sitting on, the batteries that are in your car and motorbike, the batteries in your computer." 5.5 million pounds of radioactive steel scrap was shipped to China and Taiwan from Louisiana and Texas between 1993 and 1996. There's no telling how much of it has come back to us as knives, eating and cooking utensils, toys, or other goods.

 

Some of the radioactive metal shipped to China emitted up to 2,000 microrems per hour of radiation, which is about 400 times the normal background radiation level. Federal District Court Judge Gladys Kessler found that, "The potential for environmental harm is great, given the unprecedented amount of hazardous materials which the DOE and British Nuclear Fuels seek to recycle. The parties have not provided the court with any evidence of the safety of recycling in comparison with any other method of disposal."

 

"There is no safe dose or dose rate below which dangers disappear. No threshold-dose," said John Gofman, former associate director of the Livermore National Laboratory. "Serious, lethal effects from minimal radiation doses are not 'hypothetical,' 'just theoretical,' or 'imaginary.' They are real."

 

"If you're sitting on it, or if it's part of your desk, or in the frame of your bed--where you have constant exposure and for several hours you will be in most danger," says Richard Clapp, associate professor in the department of environmental health at the Boston University Schools of Public Health.

 

Val Loiselle, chairman of the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers, said, "We were not always called Beneficial Reuse. In our first year, we were called the Radioactive Scrap Metal Conference. We can tackle the public on the notion that radioactivity is an effluent, not a waste. This industry has a right to effluence just like any other industry. And it cannot be zero. No industry has zero effluence." "DOE has 3,000 to 4,000 facilities that are in D and D [Decommission and Decontamination] state," said Loiselle. "There are 123 commercial nuclear power plants. Thirteen of these are entering the decommissioning pipeline. As these plants come down, we will be seeing lots of metals and equipment."

 

Michael Wright, director of health, safety, and environment for the United Steelworkers of America, says that there is a serious danger to workers from low-level radioactivity in steel. "You can't inhale a piece of steel," says Wright. "But if you melt it, there's a substantial risk of breathing it in. That's orders of magnitude more dangerous. There isn't anything that protects people."

 

"These exposures also can cause neurological problems," says Jackie Kittrell, a lawyer with the American Environmental Health Studies Project, an Oak Ridge organization that represents workers who have suffered heavy metal exposure and radiation poisoning.

 

Christina Bechak, vice president of the Steel Manufacturers Association, is concerned that radiation will accumulate on the machines used for shredding and smelting the metal. "Scrap metal is valuable, but we don't want radioactive scrap. The detectors in the factories are set very sensitive," says Bechak.

 

"In years past, a lot of material went out of these facilities that wouldn't meet commercial-world standards," says Michael Mobley, the director of the division of radiological health in the Tennessee Department of Energy and Conservation. "There's been some issue about this: 'Well, if we miss one or two spots it's no big deal because the standard is so strict.' If every once in a while stuff is going out that's hotter than standard, how much is going out that's hotter than standard? Their survey processes are just going to evolve into nothing."

 

According to Adams , the DOE's database shows 1,577,000 stockpiled metric tons for both the DOE and the NRC combined. "And that is dwarfed by what we've got coming," says Jane Powell, program manager of the DOE's metal recycling center. She points to all the metal at the gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge that was used for the Manhattan Project. That plant now sits idle, awaiting demolition crews. "They have one steel tunnel that is a half-mile long," says Powell. "We are going to have metal coming out of our ears. We've got metal and a need for it. We need to make it economically viable so that going out and getting virgin metal isn't the answer. We are going out in the real world to create a business."

 

How To Treat Radiation Exposure

For radionuclides in a municipal drinking water system, the water can be cleaned relatively affordably. Depending on the specific contaminant, the water can be treated with reverse osmosis, activated carbon, ion exchange, or better: all three.

 

People can take several supplements to protect against the effects of radiation. Taking these supplements not only protects you against radiation but a lot of other diseases including cancer, brain degeneration. Many nutrients contain antioxidants and many of these behave in your vital antioxidant network to protect your DNA from damage. In your diet these nutrients come from fruits, vegetables, whey protein, and whole grains. Additionally, almost any nutrient supplement with antioxidant properties, such as vitamin C, will help bolster your antioxidant team.

 

We suggest that everyone consume a broad spectrum of antioxidant support as the minimum. Indeed, a cocktail of antioxidants (selenium, vitamin C, N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, alpha-tocopherol succinate, and co-enzyme Q10) started 24 hours after a lethal level of radiation exposure has been shown to be highly protective.

 

There are three specific nutrients that have science showing they can protect your body against radiation damage: tocotrienols, antioxidants from berries, and lipoic acid. Tocotrienols are a unique form of vitamin E that offers protection that regular vitamin E does not. In a recent animal experiment carried out by the U.S. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute it was shown that gamma tocotrienol can protect against whole body radiation exposure.

 

Excessive radiation exposure damages DNA, especially DNA relating to the system in our bone marrow that produces all the red and white blood cells that are vital for survival. Therefore radiation exposure has adverse consequences on circulatory health and immune system competence, disturbing energy balance and increasing the risk for cancer. Of particular importance are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that constantly rejuvenate blood and can become any of the white or red blood cells, as well as the hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) that transform into specific blood cells. Both HSCs and HPCs are the life force of blood cell rejuvenation and essential to your good health.

 

Stem cell colonies (HSCs) are 80% - 86% maintained in gamma tocotrienol-treated mice, while they were 50% reduced in controls.
Similarly, progenitor cells (HPCs) have recovered completely within 7 days in gamma tocotrienol treated mice, while they remained at 30% for weeks in the controls. A detailed analysis of the bone marrow showed that
gamma tocotrienol maintained the regenerative integrity of bone marrow cells.

 

Gamma tocotrienol protects hematopoietic tissue by preserving the HSCs and HPCs and by preventing persistent DNA damage. Gamma tocotrienol can offset the adverse effects of radiation exposure, including the reduction of peroxynitrite, the most damaging free radical.This is important because as free radicals begin forming, their reactions can cascade into producing large amounts of the most damaging of all free radicals, peroxynitrite. Short-circuiting peroxynitrite formation in response to radiation exposure is of immense importance to protecting DNA.

 

Lipoic acid is a very small and versatile fat- and water-soluble antioxidant. Animal studies show that it helps maintain the antioxidant defense system in multiple body tissues upon radiation exposure, especially protecting the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testes.

 

The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant has been followed for several decades. These workers suffered higher-than-normal rates of problems in their nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine system(especially thyroid) and immunological systems.

 

A study conducted on some of these workers 10 years after the fact showed that 600 mg of lipoic acid for two months was able to normalize many, but not all, of their lab abnormalities.Too bad they didn’t have protection prior to and during exposure. Pretreatment with lipoic acid has been shown to significantly reduce radiation exposure damage to the brain. Recent animal research conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture showed that blueberry and strawberry extracts helped prevent brain damage from radiation exposure.Interestingly, the polyphenols of each fruit protected different areas of the brain – supporting a variety of dietary berry intake and/or supplements with multiple berries. Having an adequate antioxidant defense system for more optimal health is common sense.

 

During times of increased stress your needs for antioxidants rise – and this relates to any type of stress. Radiation exposure is simply one more type of stress – a rather nasty type. The demands in your life or existing health concerns may already be testing your antioxidant bank account. Bolstering your antioxidant defense system to compensate for a potential challenge is common sense. If you have been exposed to too many X-rays or CAT scans, if you fly too much, work with diagnostic medical equipment or are environmentally sensitive and have ingested elevated levels of radioactive contaminated food, air or water, you also want to partake of the following protocol on a regular basis.

 

Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)

So deep are the protective, buffering and neutralizing properties of bicarbonate that it is used even with radiation exposure to protect the kidneys and other tissues. In a world that is already overexposed to uranium and mercury, sodium bicarbonate becomes even more important because mercury and uranium oxide directly attack the nuclear material and mitochondria of the cells.

 

The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate diminishes the severity of the changes produced by uranium in the kidneys.  And it does this for all the heavy metals and other toxic chemicals including chemotherapy agents, which are highly lethal even in low dosages. Since depleted uranium weapons were used starting in the first Gulf War, the United States has polluted the world with uranium oxide and it is showing up more and more in tests doctors perform. With a half-life of several billion years we had better be prepared to get used to dealing with the toxic effects and help our bodies clear it more easily through the kidneys.

 

Baking soda is like a strong janitor mopping up the messes and carrying the poisons away. This substance protects tissues and leaves an alkaline film or trail behind to make sure everything stays safe. In medicine, sodium bicarbonate is like the cleaning and security man proven loyal through decades of faithful service and it can be brought in to provide some sort of protection in cases where people are suffering from radiation toxicity.

 

So useful and strong is sodium bicarbonate that at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, researcher Don York has used baking soda to clean soil contaminated with uranium. Sodium bicarbonate binds with uranium, separating it from the dirt; so far, York has removed as much as 92 percent of the uranium from contaminated soil samples.

 

The kidneys are usually the first organs to show chemical damage upon uranium exposure. Old military manuals suggest doses or infusions of sodium bicarbonate to help alkalinize the urine if this happens. This makes the uranyl ion less kidney-toxic and promotes excretion of the nontoxic uranium-carbonate complex. Sodium bicarbonate binds with uranium, separating it from the dirt; so far, they have removed as much as 92 percent of the uranium from contaminated soil samples. The United States Army recommends the use of bicarbonate to protect the kidneys from radiation damage.

 

Sodium bicarbonate can safely remove paint, grease, oil and smoke residue, decreasing workers’ exposure to harsh chemicals and eliminating much of the hazardous waste associated with other cleaners. “Sodium bicarbonate is able to clean in areas where other substances pose fire hazards, because baking soda is a natural fire extinguisher,” says Kenneth Colbert, a general manager for Arm & Hammer. This is the reason it’s used by oncology centers to control chemo agent spills and it’s actually used intravenously to protect patients from the hazardous toxicity of chemotherapy.

 

Uranium is one of the only metals that get significant bonding from carbonate. Just flushing a lot of bicarbonate through the system, along with whatever kidney support you are going to use, will be very helpful.

 

There is no better therapy for radiation sickness then intense sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and magnesium baths with the appropriate clay added in. Even sodium thiosulfate can be added to these baths and that instantly neutralizes any chlorine in the bath water while simultaneously providing sulfur for the vital sulfur pathways.

 

Bicarbonate and Nuclear Fallout
If the bombs start dropping anywhere on earth, or if you live near a nuclear plant, you will want to have a large amount of sodium bicarbonate on hand. Minimum stocks should be 25 or 50 pounds. Normally we recommend someone start with using one pound of bicarbonate in a bath but that could easily become 2 or 3 pounds in an emergency situation. You will also need a lot of magnesium salts and the very best and most penetrating of them is the magnesium chloride in the form of magnesium bath flakes. Dead Sea salt is also fine for this application because it is high in magnesium. Exposure to radiation causes a cascade of free radicals that wreak havoc on the body. Radiation decimates the body’s supply of glutathione.

 

Nebulization is one of the best ways to quickly increase glutathione levels as is the use of glutathione rectal suppositories. The main cancer risk from inhaled uranium oxide and other airborne radioactive particles is from tiny insoluble particles lodged deep in the lungs. That’s a good reason to nebulize both glutathione and bicarbonate directly into the lungs and one must wonder why governments and health officials haven’t sponsored this.

 

Uranium oxide can be inhaled by soldiers and civilians, it sticks to the lining of the lungs, it is taken up by cells of the immune systems and gets into lymph glands, bone, brain, hormone producing glands, ovaries and testes. It stays in these organs for many decades and is only very slowly excreted in urine. Nebulization topically treats the lung tissues allowing for best effect on contaminated lung tissues.

 

There are sophisticated detoxification systems based on enhancing the natural removal of metals through the intestines. Detoxification and chelation of radioactive poisons use the same pathways as mercury. Combining this with chlorella powder gives the best possible medical formula to help remove radioactive contamination as long as iodine, magnesium chloride, a super-food, spirulina-based powerful chlorophyll-rich formula that is easy to administer in high quantities because of its exceptionally pleasant taste, and edible clay are used as well. The intense levels of will quickly help build up a person’s immune system and help them recover from the RNA/DNA damage caused by radiation exposure.

 

Uranium-238 can be eliminated in the hair using heavy-metal detox protocols; to date there is no natural chelating agent known to mobilize and eliminate uranium-238 from body tissues.

 

Cilantro will move heavy metals and radioactive material out of the brain cells into the detoxification pathways with rectal suppositories of Detoxamin working on the liver’s glutathione pathway to get the material out through the intestines. The internal consumption of edible clay and external clays dramatically facilitate this process. Zeolite clay baths are a very effective way of removing heavy metals from the body and increase one’s chances of survival if exposed to nuclear fallout. Also activated charcoal powder in water will bind these toxins and pass them out of the body.

 

Iodine
Iodine is the most obvious and important element in protecting against radiation damages. Radioactive iodine will plunge into any and all iodine receptor cites that have no iodine in them due to iodine deficiencies. This is a serious problem because over 90 percent of people in North America are iodine deficient. This leaves them incredibly vulnerable to radioactive iodine, which is one of the principle forms of radiation given off in nuclear accidents and from nuclear weapons.

 

Intravenous Cocktails
In cases of serious exposure, IV cocktails with high dosages of vitamin C, magnesium chloride or sulfate, sodium bicarbonate and very pure seawater full of all the minerals necessary for life would be ideal. Dr. David Brownstein administers a slow IV vitamin C drip—usually 25-50 gm, with minerals, and he adds 10cc of sodium bicarbonate. The addition of bicarb to the IV’s made a huge clinical improvement.

 

Nutrients to the Rescue
Spirulina and chlorella have been used heavily by the Russians after the Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster. And the Japanese love their miso soup and that was said to help some of their citizens survive the fallout after the Americans attacked two of their cities. We recommend a green powder in high doses that is high spirulina and chlorella content because it is like rocket fuel for the cells, providing them with a broad range of concentrated nutrients.

 

Miso is effective for detoxifying your body of radiation.During World War II, two hospitals that were located side by side were hit with atomic radiation, in one hospital people consumed Miso and all of them survived while many people in the other hospital that did not take miso died. Miso is rich in vitamin B12 therefore it is suitable for vegetarians who are in shortage of vitamin B12. For best results do not cook miso.

 

There are a number of foods that can better help our bodies tolerate the effects of pollution.Eating lower on the food chain minimizes our chemical intake. Consuming more whole grains has a multitude of benefits, unless you are intolerant to certain grains.Their high fiber content binds with toxins and lessens intestinal transit time. Their vitamin B6 content nourishes the thymus gland and their vitamin E content helps the body to better utilize oxygen. The grain buckwheat is high in rutin and helps to protect against radiation and stimulates new bone marrow production.

 

The mucilaginous fiber in seaweed helps to prevent the reabsorbing of radioactive strontium 90.Sea vegetables contain a polysaccharide substance, called sodium alginate, which selectively bound radioactive strontium and eliminated it from the body.

 

Following the bombing of Nagasaki, a group of surviving macrobiotic doctors and their patients avoided radiation sickness by eating brown rice, miso and seaweed. They also did not get leukemia. Seaweeds also help to break down fatty deposits. High-chlorophyll foods like wheatgrass, barley grass, kale, collard greens, beet greens, swiss chard, etc. strengthen cells, transport oxygen, help to detoxify the blood and liver as well as help to neutralize polluting elements and stimulate RNA production. Sulfur-rich vegetables like broccoli, cabbage and mustard greens, as well as garlic, combine with heavy metals and help prevent free radical damage. The sulfur compounds trigger increased expression of your glutathione system, which results in both metal detoxification and free radical neutralization.

 

Curcumin (an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound found in the curry spice turmeric) protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic toxicity in skin. Curcumin also can offer protection after exposure, particularly against breast cancer.

 

Aloe vera is a natural remedy for radiation-induced skin changes preventing or minimizing radiation-induced skin reactions. People with Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) typically also suffer some kind of skin damage which can start to show within a few hours after exposure and can include swelling, itching, and redness of the skin (like a bad sunburn). A mainstream treatment of radiation injury is the use of Aloe vera preparations on damaged areas of skin because it has demonstrated remarkable healing properties even for chronic ulcerations resulting from radiation exposure.

 

Gingko biloba can be protective even after exposure to radiation. Ginkgo biloba is a tree species whose leaves have been used for centuries in Chinese medicine. Ginkgo leaf extract contains antioxidant compounds called ginkgolides and bilobalides which help scavenge free radicals that attack nearly all components of the cell, including DNA.

 

Beta-glucan protects the bone marrow. Since the 1940s, scientists have been evolving the scientific evidence of the remarkable abilities of a simple substance derived from baker's yeast to effectively potentiate and activate the immune response, and to work through nutritional potentiation of the immune response in the body's war against cancer, ulcers, radiation exposure, infection, and trauma.

 

L-glutamine, a precursor of glutathione, is standardly used by nutritionists to help rebuild intestinal walls. Studies suggest glutamine might be useful in treatment of radiation injuries to the gastrointestinal tract.

 

Mushroom supplements can help rebuild the immune system during this period. The shortage of red blood cells (anemia) causes fatigue, weakness, paleness, and difficulty breathing with physical exertion.

 

Bee pollen may also be useful as it helps increase RBC and WBC counts, enhances vitality and energy, is a general immune stimulant, and has been found to protect people from radiation sickness and specifically reduces the side effects from radium and cobalt 60.

 

Melatonin and it's antioxidative effects offer protection against cellular damage caused by ionizing radiation.

 

Garlic keeps radioactive isotopes from being absorbed.

 

Nutritional yeast (non-MSG), high in B vitamins binds, absorbs and carries heavy metals out of our systems. Select foods that are as organic as possible. Learn to identify and eat some of the wild edible plants from unpolluted areas such as chickweed, dandelion, malva and violets.

 

Burdock – During the Industrial Revolution, burdock was recommended as medicine to help people cope with the increased pollution. Helps improve skin and liver conditions. Alterative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, demulcent, nutritive and rejuvenative.

 

Chaparral – Alterative, antifungal, antioxidant and immune stimulant.

 

Dandelion – Improves function of body’s organs of elimination. Consider how this plant has done a good job for itself adapting to environmental pollutants. Helps with depression, liver and skin problems. Antifungal, cholagogue, diuretic, liver tonic and nutritive.

 

Echinacea – Stimulates white blood cell and interferon production. Alterative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, immune stimulant.

 

Eleuthero can help alleviate fatigue, ameliorate symptoms from chemical and radiation exposure and lessen the effects of stress. Adaptogen, chi tonic and immune stimulant.

 

Green and black tea – Helps with allergies, congestion, depression and fatigue. Antioxidant, decongestant, immune stimulant, nervine and stimulant.

 

Milk thistle seed – Use for chemical exposure, environmental illness and liver damage. Antioxidant, cholagogue and hepatoprotective.

 

Myrrh – Increases motility of white blood cells and normalizes mucus membrane activity. Alterative, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiseptic, decongestant and rejuvenative.

 

Nettles – Improves allergies, anemia, convalescence and headache. It helps to reduce sensitivities by binding immunoglobulin. Adrenal tonic, alterative, cholagogue, expectorant, kidney tonic, nutritive and respiratory tonic.

 

Red clover – Improves health in general. Alterative, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, expectorant and nutritive.

 

Yellow dock – Improves the function of the kidneys, liver, lymphatic system, intestines and skin thus aiding the body’s natural cleansing process. Aids anemia, convalescence, heavy metal toxicity and swollen glands. Alterative, antiseptic, blood tonic and cholagogue.

 

Pink yarrow flower essence is a specific for environmental sensitivities.

 

Vitamin A and beta-carotene improves tissue strength and decrease wound healing time.

 

Vitamin B complex can improve stress and fatigue.

 

Vitamin C gives protection against a wide range of pollutants, reduces allergy symptoms and improves healing time.

 

Selenium, helps protect one from heavy metal toxicity.

 

Zinc is needed for B and T cell production. It also helps in the elimination of aluminum, cadmium, copper and lead.

 

Calcium helps protect the body from absorbing radioactive materials and magnesium helps prevent the uptake of strontium 90. Bee pollen is extremely nutritive.

 

Bentonite clay can be used for heavy metal detox as well as to remove radiation. Internal clays have been used for detoxification for hundreds of years. As with all clays, the more you use, the quicker you tend to detox and the longer the treatment the better.

 

High nucleotide content foods to assist in cellular repair including spirulina, chlorella, algae, yeast, sardines, liver, anchovies and mackerel.

 

Marine phytoplankton reduces the side effects of radiation exposure.

 

Anti-virals such as ionic silver and olive leaf extract to help the immune system ward off infections and illness. Immune systems are typically weakened by radiation exposure.

 

Homeopathic Remedies:

Cadmium sulph 30 or Potassium iodide 30taken once before and once after an atomic explosion. These are generally used before symptoms appear, but can be used after as well.

 

Cobaltum 30Chas been known to remove side effects of radiation by taking it four times in one day for 2-3 days. Then an assessment is taken to determine if more is needed and how often. If needed from that point, it is generally used four times in one day every two weeks for 2-3 months. In the hands of a skilled homeopath, this remedy may be used in a 200C potency.

 

Radium bromatum 30Chas been used when skin eruptions or arthritis appear. Generally, take it twice daily if mild, or up to 5 times per day if more severe. It has been used for as long as many weeks, but as always, under the watchful eye of a skilled homeopath.

 

Arsenicum album 30Cin repeated doses every few minutes to half an hour, for approximately 1-2 days, then as needed depending on symptoms.

 

Phosphorus 30C, 200C, and 1M, one after the other in the same fashion as Arsenicum. Together these have a history of being a very useful 1st aid.

 

Calc fluor 12C and Natrum muriaticum 6Cthrice daily for months after exposure. More frequently, if necessary. regardless of which other remedies are chosen from above, these two remedies have a way of helping the body eliminate toxins in tandem with the other remedies.

 

The results you experience due to radiation exposure will entirely depend on the amount of radiation your body absorbs (the dose), the type of radiation you’re exposed to, the route of exposure (the susceptibility of the tissue), and the length of time over which you are exposed. It is essential that you use as many natural foods and supplements as possible when utilizing methods of prevention. Toxicity levels can build up from many supplements if taken in excess and the body will not respond favorably to these conditions. Always take the recommended dosages and try to obtain the largest percentage of your antioxidant intake from the consumption of fresh organic sources.

 

Japan is already facing a food safety crisis due to the radioactive fallout. Tests found levels of radioactive iodine up to seven times the legal limit in samples of raw milk, spinach and two leaf vegetables as far away from the nuclear plant as Chiba prefecture, to the east of Tokyo. California and the Unites States may face a similar problem as the jet stream has already carried the toxic radiation from Japan across the Pacific Ocean.

 

A few years from now people in the Northern Hemisphere will likely experience increased rates of cancer, birth defects, and other health issues triggered by the Fukushima radiation release. Most people will not connect the dots as to the cause of their suffering; and, even if they do, will have trouble proving the link and obtaining compensation for injuries. Authorities, and even the president himself, first claimed that any radiation from the stricken nuclear plant would completely dissipate, and would not reach the US at all.

 

Those predictions have proven completely inaccurate as the mainland United States has been blanketed with radioactive Xenon-133 particles and is to be exposed to more dangerous cesium-137 particles. Health authorities have gone from ambivalently telling Americans not to worry about the situation, to actively discouraging them from obtaining protective potassium iodide pills.

 

Downplaying the threat in Fukushima, Japan today needlessly puts millions of people at risk that might otherwise begin making preparations to leave the area on a long-term basis.  The deadly dishonesty of measuring and reporting only Iodine 131 levels is causing harm through omission or misinforming or under-responding. There is no effort to measure what is being released into the atmosphere.

 

As we continue to research the bits of info given to us, we too can speculate just how bad it really is!! After all, the Gulf Oil Spill is supposed to be all cleaned up now and of course the 9/11 first responders, fire fighters, police officers and volunteer workers all have cancer or have already passed. All the while the EPA said everything was OK!!

 

To see what radiation does to developing fetuses click here. And here. This is the ghastly fruit of American foreign and military policy, of more than 60 years of nuclear engineering by the military-industrial complex. The age of innocence and feigned ignorance is over. This is what the nuclear industry is doing to the human race, whether through the American military on foreign battlefields, or through the willful, criminal negligence of the nuclear power industry.

 

The entire nuclear complex, from uranium mining, to nuclear weapons (including depleted uranium munitions), to nuclear electrical generating plants, to research reactors, to so-called “nuclear medicine,” has to go.

 

What are you going to do about it?

 

List of Radiation Books

--A--

 

A SPIRIT CAPABLE: THE STORY OF COMMONWEALTH EDISON, by John Hogan, The Mobius Press, Chicago, IL, 1986.

 

THE ABOLITION, by Jonathan Schell. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1984.

 

THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND: THE NEED FOR CHANGE: THE LEGACY OF TMI: REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION, John G. Kemeny, Chairman. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 79-25694.

 

THE ACCIDENTAL HAZARDS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, by Richard E. Webb. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, 1976 (includes small Errata sheet).

 

ACHIEVING ECO-NOMIC SECURITY ON SPACESHIP EARTH USING FREE-MARKET-FORCES TO SAVE OUR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM, by Jim Bell. An ELSI Publication, San Diego, CA, 1994, 1995.

 

AGAINST THE STATE OF NUCLEAR TERROR, by Joel Kovel, South End Press, Boston, MA, 1983.

 

ALL ABOUT THE ATOM, by Ira M. Freeman. Illustrated by George Wilde. Random House, New York, NY, 1955.

 

THE ANGRY GENIE: ONE MAN'S WALK THROUGH THE NUCLEAR AGE, by Dr. Karl Z. Morgan and Ken M. Peterson. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman Publishing Division, 1999, Printed in U.S.A.

 

ANIMALS IN ATOMIC RESEARCH., by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission / Division of Technical Information, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Edward J. Brunenkant, Director, Division of Technical Information. (From Appendix I, we learn that, as of September 1st, 1966, a "grand total" of 6,412,146 animals had been used in "Programs of the Division of Biology and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission". This included one muskrat and one opossum, but not any of the ducks which were used, which were noted as being "Many millions, too numerous to count." As of that point, 115 primates had been used, and 8,100 pigs of various strains (called "swine" in the pamphlet).) Oak Ridge, TN, August, 1967. Printed in the U.S.A.

 

THE ANTI-NUCLEAR HANDBOOK, by Stephen Croall & Kaianders. A Pantheon Documentary Comic Book, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, 1978.

 

AT ANY COST: JACK WELCH, GENERAL ELECTRIC, AND THE PURSUIT OF PROFIT, by Thomas F. O'Boyle. Alfred E. Knopf, Inc., New York, NY, 1998.

 

THE ATOM FROM A TO Z, by K. Gladkov. Translated by Michael Zimmerman. Revised from the 1967 edition. MIR Publishers, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1971.

 

ATOMIC AUDIT: THE COSTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF U.S. NUCLEAR WEAPONS SINCE 1940, Stephen I. Schwartz, Editor. The Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C., 1998

 

ATOMIC ENERGY: BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA MERIT BADGE SERIES (no author listed). Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX, 1983 edition.

 

THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS, by M.Korsunsky, translated from the Russian by G. Yankovsky. Dover Publication, New York, NY, 1958, 1963.

 

ATOMS, ENERGY, AND MACHINES, by Jack McCormick, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY. Illustrated by Helmut Wimmer, American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. Published by Creative Educational Society, Mankato, MN, 1957.

 

--B--

 

BASIC RADIATION BIOLOGY, by Donald J. Pizzarello and Richard L. Witcofski. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1967.

 

BETTER A SHIELD THAN A SWORD: PERSPECTIVES ON DEFENSE AND TECHNOLOGY, by Dr. Edward Teller. The Free Press division of Macmillan, Inc., New York, NY, 1987.

 

BLAMING TECHNOLOGY: THE IRRATIONAL SEARCH FOR SCAPEGOATS, by Samuel C. Florman. (Chapter Six is titled, "Nuclear Angst".) St. Martin's Press, New York, NY, 1981.

 

BOMBS IN THE BACKYARD: ATOMIC TESTING AND AMERICAN POLITICS, by A. Costandina Titus. University of Nevada Pres, Reno and Las Vegas, NV, 1986.

 

BRIGHTER THAN A THOUSAND SUNS: A PERSONAL HISTORY OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, by Robert Jungk. (Cover quote by Bertrand Russell: "One of the most interesting books I have ever read. It is more exciting than any novel and, at the same time, it is packed with information which is both new and valuable.".) Translated by James Cleugh. A Harvest/HBJ Book, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1956, 1958.

 

--C--

 

THE CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR INITIATIVE: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES, contributors: John H. Barton, Thomas J. Connolly, Michael J. Boskin, Richard J. Gilbert, J. Martin Brown, Charles J. Meyers, Edited by W. C. Reynolds. Stanford University Institute for Energy Studies, Stanford, CA, April, 1976.

 

CHERNOBYL: A DECADE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH CHERNOBYL SASAKAWA MEDICAL COOPERATION SYMPOSIUM, KIEV, UKRAINE, OCTOBER 14-15, 1996, edited by Shunichi Yamashita, Yoshisada Shibata. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 1156, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997.

 

THE CHERNOBYL SYNDROME...AND HOW TO SURVIVE IT, by Dean Ing. Baen Books, New York, 1988.

 

CHERNOBYL: THE FORBIDDEN TRUTH, by Alla Yaroshinskaya, forward by Dr. John W. Gofman, translated by Michele Kahn and Julia Sallabank. Jon Carpenter / Oxford, England, 1994 (Originally published in 1988 in Russian).

 

CHILDREN OF CHERNOBYL: RAISING HOPE FROM THE ASHES, by Michell Carter and Michael J. Christensen. Introduction by Olga Korbut. Augsburg Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1993.

 

CITIZEN SCIENTIST, by Frank von Hipple. (Quote on cover: "From the environment to dissent, a leading scientist talks about the future of the planet.") The American Institute of Physics, Masters of Modern Physics, A Touchstone Book, Published by Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 1991.


COMMENTS ON NUCLEAR POWER, by A. Stanley Thompson, Eugene, OR, 1997. (Second Edition, January 1, 1998.) Printed in U.S.A.. (This document is also available online at www.rathouse.org/radiation/CoNP/index.html )

 

CONTROLLING THE ATOM: THE BEGINNINGS OF NUCLEAR REGULATION 1946-1962, by George T. Mazuzan & J. Samuel Walker. (Both authors are listed as historians at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.) University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

 

COUNSELS OF WAR: The Revealing Story of the Experts and Advisers -- Scientists, Academics, Think-Tank Strategists -- Who Have Influenced and Helped Determine American Nuclear Arms Policy From Hiroshima to "Star Wars", Expanded Edition, by Gregg Herken. Oxford University Press, New York, 1985, 1987.

 

COUNTDOWN TO A NUCLEAR MORATORIUM, Edited by Richard Munson. Environmental Action Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1976, 1978

 

COVER UP: WHAT YOU ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO KNOW ABOUT NUCLEAR POWER, by Karl Grossman. The Permanent Press, Sag Harbor, NY, 1982.

 

CRITICAL MASS: 1945 - 1995: FIFTY YEARS OF NUCLEAR ARMS: A BLACK & WHITE COMIC STRIP COLLECTION, by Garret Izumi. Shortwave Productions, Fremont, CA, 1995.

 

CRITICAL MASS: VOICES FOR A NUCLEAR-FREE FUTURE, Preface by His Holiness The Dalai Lama, featuring Daniel Ellsberg, Michio Kaku, Howard Zinn, Lorraine Rekmans, Edited by Greg Ruggiero and Stuart Sahulka, Introduction by Thomas Harrison & Joanne Landy, with a message from the Mayor of Hiroshima, Takashi Hiraoka. (Over title: "Our ultimate goal should be the demilitarization of the entire planet".) A joint project of Open Media and The Campaign for Peace and Democracy, Westfield, New Jersey, 1996.

 

CRITICAL MASSES: OPPOSITION TO NUCLEAR POWER IN CALIFORNIA, 1958-1978, by Thomas Raymond Wellock. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1998.

 

CRITICAL PATH, by R. Buckminster Fuller.

 

CULT OF THE ATOM: The Secret Papers of the Atomic Energy Commission, by Daniel Ford. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1982.

 

THE CURVE OF BINDING ENERGY, by John McPhee. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, NY, 1973, 1974, 1977.

 

--D--

 

DAY ONE: BEFORE HIROSHIMA AND AFTER, by Peter Wyden. (Cover quote by John Hersey: "Here, quite simply, is what every literate person on earth should know about the start of the atomic age.") Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 1984.


DEADLY DECEIT: LOW-LEVEL RADIATION, HIGH-LEVEL COVER-UP, by Jay M. Gould and Benjamin A. Goldman, with Kate Millpointer. Four Walls Eight Windows Press, New York, NY, April, 1990.


DEAR MARGARET: LETTERS FROM OAK RIDGE TO MARGARET MEAD, by Thelma Present. East Tennessee Historical Society, Knoxville, TN, 1985.


THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: AN AGENCY THAT CANNOT BE REINVENTED, by Irwin M. Stelzer with Robert Patton. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research Studies in Policy Reform, Washington, D. C., 1996.


A DESPERATE PASSION: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY, by Dr. Helen Broinowski Caldicott. W. W. Norton and Company, New York, NY, London, England, 1996.


DIET FOR THE ATOMIC AGE, revised edition, by Sara Shannon. Instant Improvement, Inc., 1987, 1993, Printed in U.S.A.


DOE/EIS-0250D-S: SUPPLEMENT TO THE DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. U. S. Department of Energy. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, May, 2001. (Also the Draft itself, and the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report—Technical Information Supporting Site Recommendation Consideration.)


THE DORSET DISASTER, by Alexander Sidar III, illustrated with photographs, charts and maps. The Stonesong Press, a division of Grosset & Dunlap, Inc., New York, NY, 1980.





--E--


ECO-CATASTROPHE, by the Editors of Ramparts. (Includes a chapter titled, "Catch-24,400, or "Plutonium is my favorite Element" by Roger Rappaport.) Canfield Press Division of Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., San Francisco, CA, 1970.


ECOCIDE IN THE USSR: HEALTH AND NATURE UNDER SIEGE, by Murray Feshbach and Alfred Friendly, Jr., forward by Lester Brown. (Contains a number of sections on Chernobyl.) Basic Books Division of Harper-Collins, Publishers, New York, NY, 1992.


THE EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS: AFP 136-1-3, revised edition, prepared by the United Stated Department of Defense. Published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Government Printing Office, April, 1962.


THE ELECTRIC WAR: THE FIGHT OVER NUCLEAR POWER, by Sheldon Novick. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA, 1976.


ENERGY: BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA MERIT BADGE SERIES (no author listed). Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX, 1998 1978 edition.


ENERGY AND CONFLICT: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF EDWARD TELLER, by Stanley A. Blumberg and Gwinn Owens. Putnam Press, New York, NY, 1976.


ENERGY & SECURITY IN THE INDUSTRIALIZING WORLD, Edited by Raju G. C. Thomas & Bennett Ramberg. The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1990.


ENERGY EARTH AND EVERYONE: A GLOBAL ENERGY STRATEGY FOR SPACESHIP EARTH, by Medard Gabel with the World Game Institute, with a foreword by R. Buckminster Fuller and an Afterword by Stewart Brand, Straight Arrow Books, San Francisco, CA, 1975.


ENERGY FROM HEAVEN AND EARTH: ("In which a story is told about energy from its origins 15,000,000,000 years ago to its present adolescence -- turbulent, hopeful, beset by problems and in need of help"), by Dr. Edward Teller. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, CA, 1979.


ENERGY FUTURE: REPORT OF THE ENERGY PROJECT AT THE HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL, Edited by Robert Stobaugh and Daniel Yergin. Ballantine Vintage Special Edition Non-Fiction, New York, NY, 1979, 1980.


ENERGY / WAR: BREAKING THE NUCLEAR LINK, by Amory B. & L. Hunter Lovins. Friends of the Earth, San Francisco, CA, 1980.


ENERGY WAR: REPORTS FROM THE FRONT, by Harvey Wasserman. Lawrence Hill & Co. in association with Meckler Publishing, Westport, CT, 1979.


ENVIRONMENTAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL, Proceedings of an International Workshop organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency in co-operation with the Environmental Directorate. Paris, France, September 1-2, 1994, Nuclear Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Documents, 1995.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR WAR, SCOPE 28 (SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON PROBLEMS OF THE ENVIRONMENT), VOLUME 1: PHYSICAL AND ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, second edition, by A. B. Pittock, T. P. Ackerman, P. J. Crutzen, M. C. MacCracken, C. S. Shapiro, and R. P. Turco. John Wiley & Sons, 1985, 1989. Printed in Great Britain.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR WAR, SCOPE 28 (SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON PROBLEMS OF THE ENVIRONMENT), VOLUME 2: ECOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTS, second edition, by M. A. Harwell and T. C. Hutchinson. John Wiley & Sons, 1985, 1989. Printed in Great Britain.


EVERYONE'S TRASH PROBLEM: NUCLEAR WASTES, by Margaret O. Hyde and Bruce G. Hyde. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1979.


EXPLAINING THE ATOM, by Selig Hecht. (Additional text on front cover: "A remarkable book which actually makes the atom and its energy comprehensible to the intelligent layman, even though he has no scientific background." Among the quotes on the back cover: "A fascinating popular book . . .that can be understood be every attentive reader." -- Albert Einstein.) The Viking Press, New York, NY, 1947, revised and enlarged 1954, 1955.


EXPOSURE: VICTIMS OF RADIATION SPEAK OUT: The Chugoku Newspaper. Translated by Kirsten McIvor, forward by Robert J. Lifton. Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, London, 1992.


--F--


FAIL-SAFE, by Eugene Burdick, co-author of The Ugly American, and Harvey Wheeler. (Quotes on the back cover include, "Both a thriller and a nightmare...rushes ahead with cold-sweat intensity... the reader will be thoroughly shaken when he finished it." -- Washington Post-Times Herald.) Dell Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1962.


THE FAIL-SAFE SOCIETY: COMMUNITY DEFIANCE AND THE END OF AMERICAN TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIMISM, by Charles Piller. Basic Books div. of HarperCollins, Publishers, 1991. Printed in U.S.A.


FALLOUT: AN AMERICAN NUCLEAR TRAGEDY, by Philip L. Fradkin. (Quote on cover: "...provides important lessons that we ignore at our own peril." -- Washington Post.) University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, 1989.


THE FATE OF THE EARTH, by Jonathan Schell. (Quote on cover: "It may be one of the most important works of recent years... there still may be hope to save our civilization." -- Walter Cronkite. Many other quotes are included inside and on the back cover.). Avon Books, Hearst Corporation, New York, NY, 1982.


FIGHTING RADIATION AND CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS WITH FOOD, HERBS, & VITAMINS, DOCUMENTED NATURAL REMEDIES THAT BOOST YOUR IMMUNITY AND DETOXIFY, by Steven R. Schechter, N. D.. Introduction by C. Norman Shealy, M.D., Ph. D.. Vitality, Ink, Encinitas, CA, 1988, 1990, 1997


FINAL WARNING: THE LEGACY OF CHERNOBYL ("An eyewitness account / A message of Hope"), by Dr. Robert Peter Gale and Thomas Hauser. Warner Books, New York, NY, 1988.


FINAL WARNING: THE LEGACY OF CHERNOBYL ("An eyewitness account / A message of Hope"), by Dr. Robert Peter Gale and Thomas Hauser. Warner Books, New York, NY, 1988 (Cover states: "Advance Reading Copy -- Not For sale").


FROM DETERRENCE TO DEFENSE: THE INSIDE STORY OF STRATEGIC POLICY, by Michael Charlton. (Additional text on cover: "Candid Interviews with the Architects of American Nuclear Policy.") Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.


FROM HIROSHIMA TO THE MOON: CHRONICLES OF LIFE IN THE ATOMIC AGE, by Daniel Lang. Copyright 1945-1959, Dell paperback edition copyright 1961, New York, NY.


--G--


GAO / NSIAD-98-1: NAVY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS: COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NUCLEAR-POWERED CARRIERS, United States General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, National Security and International Affairs Division, Washington, D.C., August, 1998.


A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF USING ATOMIC ENERGY FOR MILITARY PURPOSES UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 1940-1945, by H. D. Smyth, Chairman of the Department of Physics of Princeton University, Consultant to the Manhattan District U. S. Corps of Engineers. Written at the request of Major General L. R. Groves, United States Army. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Publication authorized as of August, 1945.


THE GIFT OF TIME: THE CASE FOR ABOLISHING NUCLEAR WEAPONS, by Jonathan Schell. Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, New York, NY, 1998.


--H--


HANS BETHE: PROPHET OF ENERGY, by Jeremy Bernstein. Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, New York, NY, 1980.


HAVE FEET, SPEAK TRUTH, by Kevin Shay. (Inside cover quotes include: “Inspirational. Saying thank you is never enough, but thank you.” – Premkumar, cofounder, Friends of All, world peace walker, Ahmedabad, India.) Shay Publications, Dallas, TX, 1993.


HEALTH EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL RADIATION, Volumes 1 & 2, by the Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives and the Health and Scientific Research Subcommittee of the Labor and Human Resources Committee and the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate, ninety-sixth Congress, First Session, April 19, 1979, Serial Nos. 96-41 and 96-42. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1979.


HIGH TECH HOLOCAUST, by James Belini. (Chapter 3, "Tomorrow Always Comes," is about nuclear radiation.) Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA, 1986.


HIROSHIMA: The story of six human beings who survived the explosion of the atom bomb over Hiroshima—this is the complete text of the brilliant report to which "The New Yorker" devoted its entire issue of August 31st, 1946, by John Hersey. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 1946.


HOTSPOTS: THE LEGACY OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI, by Sue Rabbitt Roff. Cassell, London, England, New York, NY, 1995.


HOW TO MAKE NUCLEAR WEAPONS OBSOLETE, by Robert Jastrow. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA, Copyright, 1983, 1984, 1985.


--I--


IF YOU LOVE THIS PLANET: A PLAN TO HEAL THE EARTH, by Helen Caldicott, M. D.. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 1992.


IMPROVING PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, by the Committee o Assess the Policies and Practices of the Department of Energy to Design, Manage, and Procure Environmental Restoration, Waste Management, and Other Construction Projects, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., 1999.


INDEX ON CENSORSHIP #1 (THE MAGAZINE FOR FREE SPEECH, VOLUME 25, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY, 1996, ISSUE #168): ONCE AND FUTURE SHOCK: SECRET CHERNOBYLS: THE FAILURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, Editor & Chief Executive: Ursula Owen, Writers & Scholars International, Ltd., London, England.



IN SEARCH OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE: MOVING BEYOND BLAME, by Bruce Piasecki & Peter Asmus. Foreword by Jean-Michel Cousteau. Introduction by Congresswoman Claudine Schneider. Afterword by the Honorable Robert K. Dawson. Touchstone Books, Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 1990


IN TIME OF EMERGENCY: A CITIZEN'S HANDBOOK ON NUCLEAR ATTACK AND NATURAL DISASTERS, Department of Defense. Office of Civil Defense, March, 1968.


THE INVISIBLE NUCLEAR WAR: THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL RADIATION, THE MASSIVE GOVERNMENT COVER-UP, AND THE CONTINUING BATTLE WAGED BY THE NUCLEAR POWERS AGAINST ALL LIFE ON EARTH, by Carol Brouillet, Leslie J. Freeman and Dave Ratcliffe. Major excerpts courtesy of Dr. Rosalie Bertell, Dr. John Gofman, Dr. Jay Gould, Norman Solomon and Dr. Ernest Sternglass. (an unpublished text; photocopied by the primary author.)


AN IRREVERENT ILLUSTRATED VIEW OF NUCLEAR POWER, by John W. Gofman, (also known as "IRREVY"). Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, San Francisco, CA, 1979.


--L--


LEVEL 7, by Mordecai Roshwald. (Additional cover text: "A horrifying, prophetic document of the future -- the diary of a man living 4000 feet underground in a society hell-bent on atomic self-destruction.") Signet Books, New York, NY, 1959.


THE LITTLE BLACK BOOK OF ATOMIC WAR, by Marc Ian Barasch. (Additional text on cover: "The Last Word -- And the Last Laugh -- On the War to End Them All." On the back: "Straight from Official U. S. Government sources -- Everything you always wanted to know about Armageddon, but were afraid to ask (or your government forgot to tell you)." ) Illustrations by Henrik Drescher. Dell Publishing Company, Inc., New York, NY, 1983.


LIVING DOWNSTREAM: AN ECOLOGIST LOOKS AT CANCER AND THE ENVIRONMENT, by Sandra Steingraber. (Front cover quote by Alan Lightman: "At once intimate and public, inspirational and frightening, essential reading for our time".) Perseus Books, Reading, MA, 1997 (contains sections on radioactivity in our environment).


LIVING WITH THE BOMB: CAN WE LIVE WITHOUT ENEMIES?, by Dorothy Rowe. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, England, 1985.


LOS ALAMOS EXPERIENCE, by Phyllis K. Fisher, Japan Publications, Tokyo, New York, Printed in U.S.A., 1985.


--M--


THE MAKING OF AN INSPECTOR: AN ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE SHOP INSPECTOR, by Laurence Kelly, Vantage Press, New York, NY, 1977.


THE MAKING OF A SOVIET SCIENTIST: MY ADVENTURES IN NUCLEAR FUSION AND SPACE FROM STALIN TO STAR WARS, by Roald Z. Sagdeev, former director of the Soviet Space Research Institute. Foreword by Carl Sagan. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1994.


THE MAN WHO FLEW INTO HELL (special feature in Reader's Digest). May, 1991.


MEGAWATTS AND MEGATONS: A TURNING POINT IN THE NUCLEAR AGE?, by Richard L. Garwin and Georges Charpak. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 2001.


MELTDOWN: THE SECRET PAPERS OF THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION: THREE MILE ISLAND, CHERNOBYL... WHERE NEXT?, by Daniel Ford (the revised and updated edition of The Cult of the Atom). A Touchstone Book, Published by Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 1982, 1984, 1986.


THE MENACE OF ATOMIC ENERGY, by Ralph Nader and John Abbotts. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, NY, 1977.


MERRY-GO-SORRY: A MEMOIR OF JOY AND SADNESS; A STROKE SURVIVOR'S STORY, by Richard G. Cuddihy (member of the NASA Safety Review Panel for the Galileo Space Mission). Creative Designs, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2000.


METAL OF DISHONOR: DEPLETED URANIUM: HOW THE PENTAGON RADIATES SOLDIERS & CIVILIANS WITH DU WEAPONS, Selections compiled and edited by the Depleted Uranium Education Project, Including selections by Rosalie Bertell, Helen Caldicott, Ramsey Clark, Jay M. Gould, Michio Kaku, Manuel Pino, Anna Rondon. International Action Center, New York City, 1997.


MISSILE ENVY: THE ARMS RACE AND NUCLEAR WINTER, 1986 revised edition, by Dr. Helen Caldicott. Bantam Books, New York, NY, 1984, 1986.


MOTHER COUNTRY: BRITAIN, THE WELFARE STATE AND NUCLEAR POLLUTION, by Marilynne Robinson (quote on back by John Nichols (clip): "It is as bloodcurdling as Rachel Carson's SILENT SPRING, as thought-provoking and prophetic as the best works of people like Barry Commoner and Loren Eiseley"). Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, NY, 1989 (this is the best book I've ever read—rdh).


MULTIPLE EXPOSURES: CHRONICLES OF THE RADIATION AGE, by Catherine Caufield. Martin Secker & Warburg Limited, Great Britain, 1989


--N--


NAKED TO THE BONE: MEDICAL IMAGING IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, by Bettyann Holtzmann Kevles. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 1998.


NASA: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION: FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR THE CASSINI MISSION, Office of Space Science, Solar System Exploration Division, Washington, D. C., June, 1995.


NASA POCKET STATISTICS, from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 033-000-01150, Superintendent of Documents, Pittsburgh, PA, 1995 edition.


THE NEW NUCLEAR DEBATE, by Robert A. Gessert and J. Bryan Hehir. CRIA (Council on Religion and International Affairs) Special Studies #215, New York, NY, 1976.


NO CLEAR REASON: NUCLEAR POWER POLITICS, edited by the Radical Science Collective. Free Association Books, London, England, 1984.


NO NUKES: EVERYONE'S GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER, by Anna Gyorgy & Friends (Joseph Bowring, Nancy Folbre, Tom Harris, Howard Kohn, Peter Lichtner, Michael Lucas, Sam Lovejoy, Don Michak, Peter Natti, Steve Turner and Harvey Wasserman, with graphic artists Bonnie Acker, Peg Averill, Lionel Delevingne, Candace Kaihlanen, Susanna Natti, and Mike Prendergast, reviewers included Sr. Rosalie Bertell, Larry Bogart, Ken Bossong, Dr. Helen Caldicott, Dr. Barry Commoner, David Holzman, Charles Komanoff, and Richard Morgan). South End Press, Boston, MA, 1979 (first edition).


NO PLACE TO HIDE: WHAT THE ATOMIC BOMB CAN DO TO SHIPS, OR WATER, OR LAND, AND THEREBY TO HUMAN BEINGS, IS TOLD WITH CLEAR IMPLICATIONS FOR ALL OF US BY A BRILLIANT YOUNG DOCTOR WHOSE JOB IT WAS TO WATCH FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DURING AND AFTER THE BIKINI TESTS, by David Bradley. An Atlantic Monthly Press Book, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA, 1948.


NOT IN MY BACK YARD: THE HANDBOOK, by Jane Anne Morris. (Dedication: To the Inhabitants of the Next Century ... Who will surely have lots of question for the survivors of this one."). Silvercat Publications, San Diego, CA, 1994.


NUCLEAR CULTURE: LIVING AND WORKING IN THE WORLD'S LARGEST ATOMIC COMPLEX, by Paul Loeb (back cover quote by Studs Terkel: "Paul Loeb's portrait of a nuclear weapons and power community is as brilliant as it is disturbing. The dangers of banality that threaten our sanity and existence have rarely been so vividly offered"). Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc. New York, NY, 1982.


NUCLEAR DETERRENCE AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY: ALTERNATIVE NUCLEAR REGIMES, by David W. Tarr. Longman Publishing Group, White Plains, NY, 1991.


NUCLEAR ENERGY: ITS PHYSICS AND ITS SOCIAL CHALLENGE, by David Rittenhouse Inglis, University of Massachusetts. Addison-Wesley Series in Physics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1973


THE NUCLEAR ENERGY OPTION: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE 90s, by Bernard L. Cohen. (Quotes on back cover from Hans A. Bethe, Ph. D., Dixy Lee Ray, Edward Teller, Ph. D., Rosalyn S. Yalow, Ph. D., Frederick Seitz, Ph. D., and Alvin M. Weinberg, Ph. D.) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, 1990, 1992.


NORMAL ACCIDENTS: LIVING WITH HIGH-RISK TECHNOLOGIES, by Charles Perrow. ("With a new afterword and a postscript on the Y2K problem.") (A number of chapters are about nuclear issues, including the first ("Normal Accident at Three Mile Island") and the second ("Nuclear Power as a High-Risk System: Why We Have Not Had More TMIs—But Will Soon.") Princeton University Press, Princeton, NY, 1999.


NUCLEAR FEAR: A HISTORY OF IMAGES, by Spencer R. Weart. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, London, England, 1988.


THE NUCLEAR FIX: A GUIDE TO NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES IN THE THIRD WORLD, by Thijs de la Court, Deborah Pick & Daniel Nordquist. Forewords by Amory & Hunter Lovins and Frank Barnaby. World Information Service on Energy (WISE), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1982.


NUCLEAR MADNESS: WHAT YOU CAN DO: With a new chapter on Three Mile Island, by Helen Caldicott (Additional title on cover: "The Choice Is Yours. A Safe Future. Or No Future At All".) Bantam Books, Autumn Press, Brookline, MA, 1978, 1980.


NUCLEAR MADNESS: WHAT YOU CAN DO: Revised Edition, by Helen Caldicott. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1978, 1994.


NUCLEAR POWER: A REFERENCE HANDBOOK, by Harry Henderson. ABC-CLIO’s Contemporary World Issues Series, Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO, Oxford, England, 2000.


NUCLEAR POWER: BOTH SIDES, Edited by Michio Kaku and Jennifer Trainer. (Additional text on cover: "The Best Arguments For and Against the Most Controversial Technology.") W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., New York, NY, 1982.


THE NUCLEAR POWER DECEPTION: U.S. NUCLEAR MYTHOLOGY FROM ELECTRICITY "TOO CHEAP TO METER" TO "INHERENTLY SAFE" REACTORS, by Arjun Makhijani and Scott Saleska. A Report of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. (Quote on back: "The authors base their analysis on a sound grasp of the technology and a sophisticated understanding of the subterranean military, economical, political, and technical issues that lead to the failure of the first nuclear power era. Makhinani and Saleska successfully demystify the technology with lucid and accurate explanations." —Professor Lawrence Lidsky, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.) The Apex Press, New York, NY, 1999.


NUCLEAR POWER ISSUES AND CHOICES: REPORT OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY POLICY STUDY GROUP, Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., Chairman. Sponsored by the Ford Foundation. Administered by the MITRE Corporation. Ballinger Publishing Company, Boston, MA, 1977.


NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AS WEAPONS FOR THE ENEMY: AN UNRECOGNIZED MILITARY PERIL, by Bennett Ramberg, University of California Press, Studies in International and Strategic Affairs, William Potter, Editor, Center for International and Strategic Affairs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (“Introduction to the Paperback Edition” Copyright 1984 by the Regents of the University of California). D.C. Heath and Co., 1980, 1984.


NUCLEAR POWER: THE UNVIABLE OPTION, revised and updated, by John J. Berger. (Cover photo is of a nuclear reactor at Gulf General Atomic, San Diego, CA. Quote on cover is by Senator Mike Gravel: "The need for energy often seems more apparent than the nuclear threat -- and when confronted with the question of nuclear power, most people are still likely to say, 'well, why not?' This book tells why not."). Dell Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1977. (Paperback edition.)


NUCLEAR QUALITY SYSTEMS: AUDITOR TRAINING HANDBOOK, 2nd edition, prepared by ASQC Energy Division. Quality Press, Milwaukee, WI, January, 1986.


NUCLEAR RENEWAL: COMMON SENSE ABOUT ENERGY, by Richard Rhodes (cover quote: "Pulitzer Prize-winning author of THE MAKING OF THE ATOMIC BOMB", back cover quotes by Dr. Hans A. Bethe and Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg). Wittle Books in association with Viking Press, 1993.


THE NUCLEAR SURVIVAL KIT: CATALOGUE OF 8 1/2 B Y11 INCH XEROX POSTERS, by Dona An McAdams. New York, NY, May 1st, 1982.


NUCLEAR TERMS: A BRIEF GLOSSARY, The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Edward J. Brunenkant, Director. ("One in a series on Understanding the Atom"). January, 1969.


NUCLEAR WAR: WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOU?, by Ground Zero. (Cover: "Why do you feel scared with 10,000 nuclear weapons protecting you?) Published by Pocket Books / Long Shadow Books, New York NY, 1982.


THE NUCLEAR WASTE PRIMER: A HANDBOOK FOR CITIZENS, revised edition, by The League of Woman Voters Education Fund. Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 1993.


NUREG/CR-5496 aka INEEL/EXT-97-00887, EVALUATION OF LOSS OF OFFSITE POWER EVENTS AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: 1980-1996, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Prepared for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Safety Programs Division, Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, Washington, D.C., November, 1998. (NRC Job Code E8247).


--O--


ON THE HOME FRONT: THE COLD WAR LEGACY OF THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE, by Michele Stenehjem Gerber. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1992.


ONE MORE CHANCE TO END NUCLEAR BLACKMAIL WITHOUT HOLOCAUST, by Dayton Young. (Additional text on cover: "A realistic proposal for quickly ending the one greatest threat to human sanity and survival.") Exposition Press, Jerico, NY, 1973.


ONE POINT SAFE: A True Story, by Andrew and Leslie Cockburn. Doubleday/ Anchor Books, New York, New York, 1997.


THE OPPENHEIMER HEARING, by John Major. A Scarborough Boo, Stein and Day, Publishers, Briarcliff Manor, NY, 1971.


OUTER SPACE PROPULSION BY NUCLEAR ENERGY: HEARINGS BEFORE SUBCOMMITTEES OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC ENERGY, CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION, January 22, 23 and February 6, 1958. Printed for the use of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, United States Government Printing Office, 1958.


--P--


THE PLUTONIUM FILES: AMERICA'S SECRET MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS IN THE COLD WAR, by Eileen Welsome. The Dial Press division of Random House, New York, NY, 1999.


POISONED POWER: A CASE AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS BEFORE AND AFTER THREE MILE ISLAND, by John W. Gofman, Ph.D., M.D. and Arthur R. Tamplin, Ph.D.. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, 1971, 1979.


POISONED POWER: A CASE AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS BEFORE AND AFTER THREE MILE ISLAND, by John W. Gofman, Ph.D., M.D. and Arthur R. Tamplin, Ph.D.. Foreword by Senator Mike Gravel. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, 1971.


THE POLITICS AND TECHNOLOGY OF NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION, by Robert F. Mozley. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, 1998.


THE POLITICS OF ENERGY: Why President Carter's Energy Plan is: Falsely reasoned, Economically destructive, Dangerously dependent on Nuclear Energy, Repressing the true potential of Solar Energy, and what we should be doing instead, by Barry Commoner. Borzoi Books, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, NY, 1979.


POWER CRAZY: IS LILCO TURNING SHOREHAM INTO AMERICA'S CHERNOBYL?, by Karl Grossman. Introduction by Richard Kessel. An Evergreen Book published by Grove Press, Inc., New York, NY, 1986.


POWER FROM RADIOISOTOPES: AN UNDERSTANDING THE ATOM SERIES BOOKLET, by William R. Corliss and Robert L. Mead. U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, United States of America, 1963, 1971 (rev.).


POWERHOUSE: INSIDE A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, by Charlotte Wilcox, Photograhphs by Jerry Boucher, Carolrhoda Books, Inc., The Lerner Group, Minneapolis, MN, 1996.


PLUTONIUM, POWER, AND POLITICS: INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE DISPOSITION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, by Gene I. Rochlin. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, 1979.


PREVENTING BREAST CANCER: THE STORY OF A MAJOR, PROVEN, PREVENTABLE CAUSE OF THIS DISEASE, second edition, by John W. Gofman, M. D., Ph. D.. (Cover text: "Our estimate is that about three-quarters of the current annual incidence of breast-cancer in the United States is being caused by earlier ionizing radiation, primarily from medical sources."). Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, San Francisco, CA, 1996.


--R--


RADIATION AND HUMAN HEALTH: A COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE EVIDENCE RELATING LOW-LEVEL RADIATION TO CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES, Updated and Abridged, by John W. Gofman, M.D. Quote on cover: "A profound, clearly written, practical book by a renowned physicist, physician and humanitarian...it deals with a subject that every parent should know more about. Of immense importance to everyone." -- The Nation. Pantheon Books division of Random House, New York, NY, 1981, 1983.


RADIATION, GENES, AND MAN: BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RADIATION HAZARDS, by Bruce Wallace / Th. Dobzhansky. Holt Library of Science, Series 1, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1963. Printed in the U.S.A..


RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE: AN INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS, by John W. Gofman, M. D., Ph. D.. Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, C. N. R. Book Division, San Francisco, CA, 1990.


RADIATION PROTECTION: A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS AND PHYSICIANS, third edition, by Jacob Shapiro. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA and London, England, 1972, 1981, 1990.


RADIATION PROTECTION MANUAL, 3rd edition, by Lita Lee, Ph.D. (Cover: "Sources-Fallout, irradiated food, TV's VDT's, Microwave ovens... Damage to the Human Body... The protective nature of mother's milk, how to protect yourself using diet and nutritional supplements... natural anti-carcinogenic foods"). Grassroots Network, Redwood City, CA, 1990.


RADIOACTIVITY IN AMERICA: GROWTH AND DECAY OF A SCIENCE, by Lawrence Badash. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD and London, England, 1979.

RADIOISOTOPES IN MEDICINE, by Earl W. Phelan. The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Edward J. Brunenkant, Director. ("One in a series on Understanding the Atom"). November, 1968.


A REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGY, Department of State, United States of America, Washington, D. C., March 16, 1946, Prepared for The Secretary of State's Committee on Atomic Energy by a Board of Consultants: Chester I. Barnard, Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, Dr. Charles A. Thomas, Harry A. Winne, and David E. Lilienthal, Chairman. Publication 2498. Reprinted by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.


--S--


SCIENCE & SURVIVAL, by Barry Commoner. (Quote on cover: "An eminent scientist shows how dangerous flaws in the structure of science threaten our existence and suggests what might be done to avert the ultimate blunder.") A Viking Compass Book. New York, NY, 1963 to 1967.


SHOULD WE RISK IT? EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEM SOLVING, by Daniel M. Kammen and David M. Hassenzahl. (The book includes a number of nuclear-related topics.) Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 1999.


THE SILENT BOMB: A Guide to the Nuclear Energy Controversy, edited by Peter Faulkner, forward by Paul R. Ehrlich. Vintage Books division of Random House, New York, First Edition, July, 1977.


THE SILENT INTRUDER: SURVIVING THE RADIATION AGE (uncorrected proofs edition), by Charles Panati and Michael Hudson. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1981.


SITE UNSEEN: THE POLITICS OF SITING A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY, by Gerald Jacob. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990.


THE SMUGGLED ATOM BOMB, by Philip Wylie. (Additional text on cover: "A stirring novel of suspense, high adventure and romance by American's best-loved writer of fiction." The Boston Post is quoted as saying, "Brilliant." On the back cover, the Christian Science Monitor says, "Brilliant, daring, honest, stringent... A top-form thriller." Quotes by the Binghamton Press and Milwaukee Journal are also included.) Lancer Books, New York, NY, 1948, 1951, 1965.


SOLDIER'S HANDBOOK FOR DEFENSE AGAINST CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR WARFARE, Department of he Army Field Manual, FM 21-41. Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., February, 1967.


SPACE FRONTIER, by Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Fawcett World Library, Greenwich, CT, 1963-1969.


SPACE WEAPONS: A HANDBOOK OF MILITARY ASTRONAUTICS, Compiled and Edited by the Editors of Air Force Magazine. Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, New York, NY, 1959.


SPACEPOWER: WHAT IT MEANS TO YOU: HOW THE SPACE AGE WILL AFFECT YOUR JOB, YOUR HOME, YOUR MODE OF LIVING AND WORLD PEACE, by Donald Cox and Michael Stoiko, illustrations by N. Stanilla. John C. Winston Company, Philadelphia, PA and Toronto, Canada, 1958, printed in U.S.A..


THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE BOMB: VOLUME ONE: ONE WORLD OR NONE: A HISTORY OF THE WORLD NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT MOVEMENT THROUGH 1953, by Lawrence S. Wittner. Stanford Nuclear Age Series, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1997.


THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE BOMB: VOLUME TWO: RESISTING THE BOMB: A HISTORY OF THE WORLD NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT MOVEMENT 1954-1970, by Lawrence S. Wittner. Stanford Nuclear Age Series, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1997.

--T--


TELLER'S WAR: The Top-Secret Story Behind the Star Wars Deception, by William J. Broad. Simon and Schuster, New York, New York, 1992.


THE THIRD WORLD WAR: AUGUST, 1985, by General Sir John Hackett & Other Top-Ranking NATO Generals and Advisors. The Illustrated Edition. A Berkley Book, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1979, 1980.


THE THREAT AT HOME: CONFRONTING THE TOXIC LEGACY OF THE U.S. MILITARY, by Seth Shulman. Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1992.


THREE MILE ISLAND: THE HOUR-BY-HOUR ACCOUNT OF WHAT REALLY HAPPENED, by Mark Stephens, Random House, New York, NY, 1980.


THREE MILE ISLAND: TURNING POINT, by Bill Keisling, Introduction by Buckminster Fuller, forward by Richard Pollock, Afterward by Dr. Ernest J. Sternglass. Veritas Books, Inc., Seattle, WA, 1980.


TIME BOMB: UNDERSTANDING THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR POWER, by Corinne Browne & Robert Munroe. William Morrow and Company, New York, NY, 1981.


TOO HOT TO HANDLE? SOCIAL AND POLICY ISSUES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE, edited by Charles A. Walker, Leroy C. Gould, and Edward J. Woodhouse. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT and London, England, 1983.


TOP GUNS & TOXIC WHALES: THE ENVIRONMENT AND GLOBAL SECURITY, by Gwin Prins & Robbie Stamp. (Quote on cover: "Powerful and thought provoking." -- Senator Al Gore.) (Companion book to the national television show seen on Turner Broadcasting.) Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London, England, 1991.


TOXICS A TO Z: A GUIDE TO EVERYDAY POLLUTION HAZARDS, by John Harte, Cheryl Hodren, Richard Schneider, and Christine Shirley. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA, 1991.


TRASHING THE PLANET: HOW SCIENCE CAN HELP US DEAL WITH ACID RAIN, DEPLETION OF THE OZONE, AND NUCLEAR WASTE (AMONG OTHER THINGS), by Dixy Lee Ray with Lou Guzzo. Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C., 1990.


THE TREATMENT: THE STORY OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE CINCINNATI RADIATION TESTS, by Martha Stephens. Duke University Press, Durham, SC and London, England, 2002. (Tests ran from 1960-1972; the books is dedicated to the 90 victims, to remember their injuries and afflictions, and unwitting sacrifice.)


TRINITY'S CHILDREN: LIVING ALONG AMERICA'S NUCLEAR HIGHWAY, by Tad Bartimus and Scott McCartney. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, New York, NY, 1991.


THE TRUTH ABOUT CHERNOBYL, by Grigori Medvedev, translated from the Russian by Evelyn Rossiter, with a forward by Andrei Sakharov and Author's Preface to the American Edition. BasicBooks div. of Harper Collins, 1989, 1991 (English translation), printed in U.S.A.


THE TRUTH ABOUT THE NEUTRON BOMB: THE INVENTOR OF THE BOMB SPEAKS OUT, by Sam Cohen. William Morrow and Company, New York, NY, 1983.


--U--


THE UBIQUITOUS ATOM: WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT DOES, AND WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH IT, edited and with an introduction by Grace Marmor Spruch and Larry Spruch. Illustrated with photographs and with diagrams by Richard Liu. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY, 1974.


UNCHAINED REACTIONS: CHERNOBYL, GLASNOST, AND NUCLEAR DETERRENCE, by Arthur T. Hopkins. National Defense University Press, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D. C., for sale by the U. S. Government Printing Office, 1993.


UNDERSTANDING RADIOACTIVE WASTE: Third Edition: Latest Developments, by Raymond L. Murray, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, 1989.


UNPAID COSTS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM COAL AND NUCLEAR POWER, by William Ramsay. A Study Prepared for the National Energy Strategies Project, Published for Resources for the Future (Wash., D.C.) by The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1979. Manufactured in the United States of America.


THE URANIUM PEOPLE: THE HUMAN STORY OF THE MANHATTAN PROJECT BY THE WOMAN WHO WAS THE YOUNGEST MEMBER OF THE ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC TEAM, by Leona Marshall Libby. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY, 1979.


--V--


VILLAGE OF STARS: COULD THEY DISARM THEIR DEADLY NUCLEAR BOMB BEFORE IT DESTROYED THEM ALL -- AND TRIGGERED WORLD WAR III?, by Paul Stanton. (Quote on cover: "Nerve-Shattering Suspense!" —Cleveland Press). Permabook, Pocket Books, New York, NY, 1960.


--W--


THE WAR AGAINST THE GREENS, by David Helvarg. (Additional text on cover: "The "Wise Use" Movement, the New Right, and Anti-Environmental Violence.") Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA, 1994, 1997.


WASTING AWAY: AN EXPLORATION OF WASTE: WHAT IT IS, HOW IT HAPPENS, WHY WE FEAR IT, HOW TO DO IT WELL, by Kevin Lynch, with contributions by Editor Michael Southworth. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA, 1990 (includes sections on nuclear waste).


THE WARNING: ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND, by Mike Gray and Ira Rosen. (Quote on cover by Jack Anderson: "A ripping thriller, made more compelling by the fact that it is true.". Quotes on back cover include this from Studs Terkel: "This book is as explosive as the explosion it warns us about. It is as suspenseful as a good novel and as necessary as food and water.") W. W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, London, England, 1982.


WHAT ABOUT THE RUSSIANSAND NUCLEAR WAR? ("The First Concise Manual on the Origins of Soviet Nuclear Policy"), by Ground Zero, prepared under the direction of Earl A. Molander and Roger C. Molander. Pocket Books, NY, 1983.


WHO KILLED KAREN SILKWOOD, by Howard Kohn (back cover quotes by Studs Terkel, Jane Fonda, Stewart, Udall and Jack Anderson). Summit Books, New York, NY., 1981.


WINGS OF DEATH: NUCLEAR POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH, by Dr. Chris Busby. Green Audit Books, Green Audit (Wales) Ltd., Aberystwyth, 1995.


WITH ENOUGH SHOVELS: REAGAN, BUSH [SR.], AND NUCLEAR WAR, by Robert Scheer, with the assistance of Narda Zacchino and Constance Matthiessen. (Quote on cover: "Dig a hole, cover it with a copy of doors and then throw three feet of dirt on top... It's the dirt that does it... if there are enough shovels to go around, everybody's going to make it." -- T.K.Jones, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Strategic and Theater Nuclear Forces). Vintage Books, Random House, New York, NY, 1982.




THE WIZARDS OF ARMAGEDDON: THIS IS THEIR UNTOLD STORY, by Fred Kaplan. (Additional text on cover: "For thirty years a small group inside the U. S. strategic community has devised the plans and shaped the policies on how to use the bomb." Quote on front cover by Gregg Herken, The Washington Post Book World: "Fascinating... contains much that is not only new but stunning about the nation's official thinking and planning for nuclear war.") A Touchstone Book, Published by Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 1983.


THE WOMAN WHO KNEW TOO MUCH: ALICE STEWART AND THE SECRETS OF RADIATION, by Gayle Greene, forward by Helen Caldicott. Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, 1999. Printed in the U.S.A..


A WORLD DESTROYED: THE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE GRAND ALLIANCE, by Martin J. Sherwin. Alfred A. Knopf, Publish, New York, NY, 1973, 1975.


THE WRONG STUFF: THE SPACE PROGRAM'S NUCLEAR THREAT TO OUR PLANET, by Karl Grossman, Common Courage Press, Monroe, ME, 1997.


--X--


X-RAYS: HEALTH EFFECTS OF COMMON EXAMS, by John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph. D., and Egan O'Connor. (Additional text on cover: "A practical guide which sorts the high-risk medical and dental exams from the low-risk ones, with easy-to-use tables by age and sex -- an essential reference for physicians, dentists, patients and parents.") Quotes on back cover: "John Gofman's fascinating, authoritative, and brilliant book will demystify the subject of exposure to low-level ionizing radiation." —Andre Bruwer, M.D., Diplomate, American Board of Radiology, and: "This remarkable and important book enables any intelligent person with a high school education to understand the complexities involved in assessing the risks to man from low levels of ionizing radiation." —Journal of the American Medical Association. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA. 1985.

 

 

 

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