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Antibiotics

Antibiotic injectable

Antibiotics in our bodies cannot tell the cops from the robbers. With no discretion, they kill friendly as well as harmful bacteria. It is usually not recognized that for every injurious or parasitic microbe, there are dozens of beneficial ones. The majority of bacteria are helpful, actually working for us, and are a source of nutrition, like the microflora in our intestines. Antibiotics kill the friendly bacteria that manufacture vitamin B12 in the gut. Where's the logic in depressing our immune system to fight an infection artificially? Humans and other animals don't produce antibiotics, nor do they need to, if their endocrine, immune, and nervous systems have the mineral, vitamin, protein, and enzyme substances found in foods grown on mineral-rich soil. Armed with these tools, the Earth's highest forms of life--humans and animals are well equipped to fight the Earth's lowest forms of life--bacteria and fungi. This has kept human beings surviving for at least 100,000 generations. Nature's track record for being right should inspire our trust. Dr. Richard Novick, Public Health Research Institute, New York City, on the subject of antibiotics, says, "Doctors use them as a crutch for an easy way to take care of patients, and drug companies have a financial stake in selling them as fast as they can."

Today, about 15 million pounds a year, nearly half of U.S. production of antibiotics, is fed to farm animals, primarily cattle, poultry and pigs--$270.9 million worth in 1983. It has been shown how antibiotic-resistant bacterium, in addition to residual antibiotics, can make their way from the barnyard to the dinner table and into the humans who eat it. Antibiotics have not made any significant changes in the plague of human diseases. Pathologist Widmann of Duke University stated: "Wonder drugs have not eradicated infectious disease; they have merely changed the conditions and natural history of many infections. They have, however, contributed to immunosuppression, perhaps setting the stage for AIDS. Antibiotics, instead of assisting the inflammatory repair process, inhibit both chemotaxis and phagocytosis, which are essential to the healing of damaged tissue. Antibiotics have been implicated in causing as many as 300,000 disease reactions per year with up to 90,000 deaths per year resulting therefrom. Antibiotics have caused immunologic reactions such as: (a). anaphylaxis, (b.) urticaria, (c.) Coomb's-positive hemolytic anemia, (d.) serum sickness and (e.) morbilliform eruptions, resembling measles."

Antibiotics cause gastrointestinal reactions by direct irritation of the mucous membrane, destruction of normal, natural bacterial flora or by creating bacterial overgrowth of abnormal forms. Antibiotics eliminate organisms from the normal flora of the skin, oral and genito-urinary mucosa and promote growth of drug-resistant organisms. Oral or vaginal candidiasis (thrush) often follows the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Now, if the Ehrlich/Metchnikoff germ theory was still a contender in the ring of disease causation, which it's not, the antibiotic approach to disease treatment might have some credibility. It is worth noting that the term antibiotic is from root words that mean "against life" and is defined by the medical dictionaries as: (1) destructive of life, (2) a chemical substance produced by a microorganism, which are able to kill other microorganisms.

The layman's dictionary simply tells us that antibiotics are substances having the power to arrest or kill microorganisms called germs. The incidence of infections in wounds caused by injury or operations has not decreased despite the use of antibiotics for more than twenty-five years, declared bacteriologist and surgeon Dr. William Altemeier to a meeting of the American College of Surgeons. His study revealed that antibiotics may actually have increased the number and complexity of problems related to infections. In 1972, the U.S. Senate Small Business Monopoly Subcommittee held hearings about drug abuse, and Dr. Henry E. Simmons made known some very important facts about antibiotics. At that time, Dr. Simmons was director of the Bureau of Drugs in the FDA and blamed doctors who prescribed antibiotics routinely for creating additional problems. Simmons explained that "the inappropriate use of an antibiotic can result in the appearance of resistant strains of bacteria with an increased number of superinfections." He explained to the subcommittee that one of the major problems in medicine today was the sharp rise in hospital-treatment-caused superinfections he called blood poisoning. Simmons and other doctor-witnesses testified to the facts that: (1) "Antibiotics possibly cause 100,000 to 300,000 iatrogenic cases each year of which 30% to 50% are fatal." (2) "60% of hospital patients who receive antibiotics don't need them." (3) "Production of antibiotics has increased 300 percent in 10 years--in 1972 reaching 2.4 million kilograms."

This would mean, that in 1972, enough antibiotics were produced to give every man, woman and child in the U.S. 50 doses, a drop in the bucket compared to production in 1982. (4) In a letter by FDA to national medical groups, pertinent excerpts pointed out that: (a) Antibiotics are being massively introduced when not indicated and are often misused. (b) Indiscriminate or inappropriate use of antibiotics is detrimental. Robbins and Cotran's Pathologic Basis Of Disease, 1979, tells us that over 90% of hospital isolates of staphylococci from patients with serious infectious diseases are penicillin-resistant and that gonococci have become resistant to the tetracyclines, streptomycin and sulfonamides. "Drug resistance has been documented for many microbes, and so it has become a race between the ingenuity of man in developing new drugs and the ingenuity of the microbes in achieving methods of survival." Or, could it be that an intelligent Creator designed the microbe to adapt to chemical insult, in order to continue its scavenger function of dissolving dead cells so that man can keep living in spite of his evolutionary ignorance? In 1972, Harry Dowling, a former chairman of the Council on Drugs of the AMA, testified before the Senate Monopoly Subcommittee and cited FDA data that doctors prescribe 10 to 20 times as many antibiotics as are medically justified. Dowling said, "It is doubtful that the average person has an illness that requires treatment with an antibiotic more often than once every five or ten years."

The late Dr. Robert Mendelsohn, M.D., in his book, Confessions of a Medical Heretic, had a few remarks about antibiotic misuse and told us: (1) "...these 'miracle' drugs that were once extremely valuable are now extremely dangerous. (2) "Penicillin and other antibiotics do not shorten the course of the disease, do not prevent complications, and do not reduce the number of pathogenic organisms in the nose and throat. They do no good at all. (3) "...Chloromycetin (chloramphenicol) has the common, fatal side effect of interfering with the bone marrow's production of blood." About Chloromycetin, Mendelsohn says that if a person's life is at stake, using this drug could be an acceptable risk to take. But if a child suffers nothing more than a sore throat, "is the non-relief chloromycetin might bring worth risking depression of the child's bone marrow, requiring multiple transfusions and other therapies, none of which will guarantee complete recovery?" (4) Tetracycline became so popular it became known as the 'house call' antibiotic. He relates that the FDA finally required a warning on all packages informing that in late pregnancy, infancy, and to the age of 8--it can cause permanent yellow-gray-brown discoloration of teeth including malformed tooth enamel. Mendelsohn, who was an Associate Professor of Medicine, warns that 8 to 10 million Americans go to the doctor, each year, for a cold. Ninety-five percent get a prescription and at least 50% are for antibiotics, which are not even indicated for a cold. He says, "Not only are these people duped into paying for something which has no effectiveness against their problem, but they are set up for the hazards of side effects and the risks of deadlier infections."

Daniel L. Azarnoff, M.D., University of Kansas Medical Center, writing in the book Controversies in Therapeutics, 1980, comments, "A study of 50 randomly selected charts from one week in June 1973, at a well known medical center showed that 56 courses of antibiotics were given. Of all the prescriptions for antibiotics, 63% were considered not indicated, inappropriately selected or given in wrong doses." Dr. Azarnoff, in his study entitled Monitoring and Control of Physician Prescribing Are Needed tells us a few things that are hard to believe: The average doctor writes approximately 8,000 prescriptions per year. In one study involving 1,608 patients receiving antibiotics, 62% had no evidence of infection, which would not indicate a need for antibiotics. Of 254 patients receiving the drug spironalactone in a university hospital, 104 were also receiving potassium chloride, which in combination, frequently has deleterious effects on humans. He warns: "If misuse of drugs occurs at teaching institutions that have strong peer review and supervision, what's happening in less-well-supervised situations? In one recent year, nearly 7 million ounces of antibiotic Tetracycline syrup was prescribed. Ninety-nine percent went to children under 8 years of age. This particular drug produces symptoms similar to brain tumors and can cause mouth and kidney infections, rectal disease, kidney failure, permanent tooth damage and inhibition of bone growth." This information comes from Dr. Summer Yaffe, chairman of the Committee of Drugs for the American Academy of Pediatrics in Philadelphia. Dr. Yaffee warns, "You don't need tetracycline. It's not effective, and it's toxic. In small children, it can cause the skull to bulge." The condition mimics a brain tumor so closely that in some cases babies had to undergo surgery. The anguish and expense parents go through makes it clear that more stringent controls should be put on this drug.

Friendly Bacteria

Antibiotics (prescription or residues in meat & poultry) cause improper or insufficient bacteria in the bowel. The ability of intestinal flora to metabolize nutrients, hormones, bile acids, cholesterol and carcinogens is well established. Over 400 species of microorganism inhabit the healthy human gut and contribute four pounds to overall body weight. The ecology of these microorganisms is very important to the health of the human body. The balance of this ecology can significantly affect lactose tolerance, serum cholesterol levels, tumor growth or suppression, serum steroid hormone levels, immune function, the proliferation of pathogenic organisms in the gut, bowel transit time and other aspects of metabolism. Relatively few bacteria, between 10 and 100 organisms per ml. of stomach contents, are commonly found in the healthy human stomach. Concentrations of one trillion organisms per ml. of content are common in the colon.

Immune Suppression

Scientific American Medicine, 12/80, 7:-1, states, "In the past decade, there have been major advances in the use of immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation. An important side effect, however, has been the creation of a group of patients with major defects in host defense against infection. Therapeutic programs that may have an adverse effect on a patient's ability to withstand infection include antibiotics, radiation therapy, corticosteroids (cortisone-prednisone), and cytotoxic agents. Thus, antibiotic therapy should be as specific as possible and should not be used needlessly." One type of adverse reaction from antibiotics is called cytotoxic and an antibody theoretically mediates it. By whatever mechanism, the drug serves as a haptene and results in an immugenic action. Some of the adverse consequences of the "cytotoxic response" include hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia associated, supposedly, with the autoimmune mechanism. This ignores the true cause--drugs--and sets up a make-believe situation that blames the consequent pathology on patients' natural ability to cope with any physiological insult, as well as the drug insult.

Penicillin and streptomycin are more often associated with hemolytic anemia; a break down of the red blood cell wall, while streptomycin, chloramphenicol, antihistamines and sulfonamides, like HEAVY METALS, interfere with the body's ability to produce neutrophils, which is called neutropenia. The periodical Current Therapy, 1983 revealed a few side effects from Penicillin. They are:

1. Skin reactions--a. exfoliative dermatitis; b. maculopapular eruptions; c. necrotizing dermatitis; d. purpura (hemorrhagic disease).

2. Kidney reactions--a. angiitis (renal artery inflammation); b. glomerulonephritis; c. acute nephritis.

3. Other reactions and symptoms--a. eosinophilic pneumonia; b. photoallergic sensitivity; c. drug fever; d. symptoms such as dyspnea, fever, bleeding, nerve damage and painful muscles.

4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus has been induced by Procainamide, Isoniazid, Quinidine, and Griseofulvin, as well as by Penicillin.

Not only are antibiotics not needed nor even indicated, they are classified as immunosupressive drugs, which impair the human immune system. How many fatal cases of AIDS are, in truth, the after-effect of irrationally prescribed antibiotics? Many antibiotics have a nephro (kidney) toxicity factor of 20% and several antibiotics have hepa (liver) toxicity factor more than 20%. Since most antibiotics inhibit chemotaxis and phagocytosis, they definitely impair the immune system, and, in turn, can and will contribute to AIDS. In the journal, Diseases of the Chest, (39, 630-642: 1961), two chest specialists, Sidransky and Pearl, blatantly cautioned, "Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis almost always follows antibiotic or steroid (cortisone/prednisone) therapy and is increasing in incidence." In other words, the administration of antibiotics or steroids destroys the normal, needed bacteria in the respiratory tract, which digest and destroy yeast cells. Devoid of proper bacterial flora, the stage is set for the invasion of yeast organisms such as aspergillosis and histoplasmosis spores. Both conditions can lead to pneumonia and influenza-type illness. Fatal Aplastic Anemia after Chloromycetin and Tagamet has been reported in the Physicians Drug Alert--April 1982. On day 32, the marrow was aplastic, on day 34, the patient died. Both Chloromycetin and Tagamet can cause bone-marrow suppression.

Chloromycetin causes reversible and irreversible pancytopenia. Most cases of Chlormycetin-induced aplastic anemia occur 2 weeks to 12 months after oral administration. Three cases of Tagamet-associated pancytopenia have been reported with marked marrow hypoplasia in one patient. How many unreported cases? Pancytopenia (PCP) exists when platelets, white cells and red cells are all diminished; an indication of bone marrow depression. When due to drugs, it is also called secondary aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia. Most cases of leukopenia, which means a white blood cell count under 4,800, are usually due to a decrease in neutrophils-called polys or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Neutrophils, as already mentioned, constitute the body's first line of defense when tissues are damaged. By chemotaxis, neutrophils promptly migrate to areas of inflammation and phagocytize (engulf) foreign matter and other necrotic debris. Dr. W. Eugene Sanders, associate Professor of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, was quoted in the Health Bulletin, Vol.9 No.3, that, "there was a time when there was so much penicillin used on hospital wards that one could detect minute organisms of penicillin in the air." He cautioned that doctors prescribe antibiotics too frequently, in too high doses or when they are not needed and this is upsetting the ecology of the human body and making it more difficult for the natural defense system to do its job. He goes on to state, "This is not just a problem confined to physicians...It is prevalent in the best teaching institutions of this country." Killing the myth is much more difficult than killing bacteria. The mystery of the effectiveness of antibiotics is decided in the petri dish or culture plate. Antibiotics in vitro (test tube or petri dish) kill microorganisms by weakening the cell walls.

But...in the body--in vivo--the real effect is the enzymatic blockade of reactions of cellular biochemistry needed for repair or replacement. A problem in this area was made manifest by F.K. Widmann, M.D., assistant Professor of Pathology at Duke University School of Medicine. Dr. Widmann stated that culture contamination is by no means uncommon and that detergents, alcohol sponges or other skin cleaners are not adequate when doing venipunctures to obtain blood for culturing. With millions of bacteria inhabiting a single breath of air and thousands of bacteria being pushed under the skin and into the bloodstream with each hypodermic needle insertion--it becomes evident that sterility of specimen and non-contamination of Petri cultures is a sheer impossibility. Gram-positive or gram-negative bodies resembling yeasts may be seen in spinal fluids shortly after myelograms...obviously an artifact introduced into the spinal fluid by the hypodermic needle. In the case of tetracyclines, they enter the mitochondrion (power plant of the cell) and induce defective oxidative phosphorylation, which brings inflammatory repair to a halt. Steroids such as Cortisone and Prednisone are pharmacologically designated as anti-inflammation agents and do just that...stop inflammation.

All authorities on chemotherapy of microbial diseases relate that in the selection of antimicrobial drugs and treatment guidelines, identification of the causative organism is essential to the appropriate antimicrobial drug selection and successful treatment of infections. If microorganisms cause disease, it would, naturally, be of scientific benefit to identify the culprit and then administer an effective chemotherapeutic agent with selective toxicity. Selective toxicity means the ability to kill (bactericidal) or inhibit (bacteriostatic) microorganisms without harming or killing the host (patient). Bactericidal type chemotherapeutic agents called antimicrobials include: 1. Penicillins; 2. Cephalosporins; 3. Aminoglycosides such as Streptomycin, Neomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamycin, Tobramycin and Amikacin; 4. Vancomycin; 5. Polymixin, Polymixin B and Colistin.

Bacteriostatic agents include the following: 1. Sulphonamides (SO2NH2), sulfa-like compounds; 2. Trimethoprim; 3. Tetracyclines; 4. Chloramphenicol; 5. Erythromycin; 6. Lincomycin or Clindamycin. This specificity factor has been determined in a petri dish by disk diffusion. The problem, or example, is seen in the fact that almost 100% of salmonella bacteria are susceptible, in vitro, to Gentamycin or Colistin, but in vivo (in the body) are diagnosed as systemic salmonellosis, there's no therapeutic benefit derived from this antibiotic. Also, subacute bacterial endocarditis is supposedly caused by the bacteria viridans streptococci. In the dish, chloramphenicol destroys the microorganism almost 100% whereas in the blood, the antibiotic has no clinical benefit at all.

If you stop the first phase of the biochemistry of inflammation by administering an antihistamine, which neutralizes the histamine and relieves brawny induration or swelling...relief of symptoms occurs, but there is no repair. If you give an antipyretic and stop the hyperemia with its accompanying heat or fever, you have symptomatic relief, but there is no repair. You can administer an antibiotic or steroid hormone with abatement of symptoms, but there is no repair.

Cipro

Cipro is ciprofloxacin, a fluorinated quinolone, belonging to a class of fluorinated antibiotics, which also include enoxacin, temafloxacin, grepafloxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, etc. Ciprofloxacin has been in use since 1987 for a variety of indications and is the most widely used fluoroquinolone in humans and animals worldwide. In 2000, the FDA approved its use in treatment of inhalation anthrax under their "accelerated approval" regulations. They had actually taken the unusual step of urging Bayer--the sole manufacturer--to file for such approval, supposedly in order to protect the public from future terrorist attacks. The U.S. Department of Defense had already ordered reserves of Cipro during the 1991 Gulf War.

Adverse Effects

Along with Baycol (cerivastatin), other fluorinated drugs like temafloxacin and grepafloxacin (fluoroquinolones) have been withdrawn from the market because they had caused severe liver and renal damage--and death. Fatal liver failure associated with ciprofloxacin was reported in the Lancet in 1994. Ciprofloxacin has been implicated in several cases of acute renal failure and is the most established fluoroquinolone to cause such renal dysfunction. All quinolones cause erosion of cartilage in weight-bearing joints. They may cause convulsions, increases intracranial pressure, toxic psychosis, CNS stimulation (i.e.nervousness, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations).Should not be used in anyone with seizure disorders, or cerebral arteriosclerosis. There have been deaths due to anaphylactic shock, and cardiovascular collapse. Also occurring are tingling, itching, facial swelling, and difficult breathing.

The most common side-effects reported due to Cipro are gastrointestinal in nature and similar to those reported when children accidentally ingest "too much" fluoride from their toothpaste--nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Ciprofloxacin administration results in elevated serum fluoride levels. In a series of tests evaluating the safety of ciprofloxacin in children, serum fluoride levels increased after 12 hours in 79% of the children; on day 7, the 24-hour urinary fluoride excretion was higher in 88.9% of children observed. Just as other fluorinated drugs, Cipro can cause musculo-skeletal disorders such as rhabdomyolysis. Since the introduction of fluoroquinolones on the market in 1987, more than 200 cases of rhabdomyolysis, tendonitis, tendon rupture, etc., have been reported in the literature. In October 1994, the Japan Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau was first to amend the product information for fluoroquinolones to state that rhabdomyolysis may occur. In 1996, the FDA also issued directives to manufacturers to include warning statements on all fluoroquinolone product inserts, to alert patients and caregivers to the potential for tendonitis and tendon rupture. Also in 1996, the Sri Lanka Drug Evaluation Sub-Committee decided that the product information of fluoroquinolone antibiotics should include a warning stating "The onset of tendon pain calls for immediate withdrawal of fluoroquinolone antibiotics." Achilles tendon rupture was shown to occur even after withdrawal of the drug. Pathologically, there was ultrastructure alteration in tendinocytes. Just as in other cases of fluoride poisoning, studies in animals show that magnesium deficiency aggravates the induced tendinopathy.

Drug Interactions/Death

Drug interactions with ciprofloxacin have resulted in fatal outcomes due to potentiation of the effects of another drug, such as theophylline, methadone, or warfarin. As in other fluorinated drugs, ciprofloxacin is a potent inhibitor of the thyroid hormone-regulated P450 enzyme detoxification system in the liver. Of all fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and enoxacin have shown the greatest inhibitory capacity. P450 IA2 prevents the metabolism/inactivation of methylxanthines, thereby causing increased serum concentrations of drugs like theophylline and caffeine, which, in turn, causes excess CNS and cardiac stimulation. Cipro also elevates serum fluoride levels. The liver has been identified as a target organ of fluoroquinolone toxicity in animal studies. Already in the 1930s, the same was shown by Bayer's scientists, who found that all organic fluoride compounds tested interfered with thyroid hormone activity in liver and muscle tissue. Meanwhile, they showed "anti-bacterial" activity. This led to the development of many fluorinated medications, including the numerous compounds then used very successfully in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. One scientist developed many fluorinated "medications." When it was discovered that some of these organic compounds had the same detrimental effects on teeth and bone as inorganic fluoride--although much less actual fluorine was involved--he even filed patents, using these compounds in dental preparations. Pregnant women should never take ciprofloxacin. Cipro transfers through the placenta. It inhibits P450 IA2, which has been shown to be critical for neonatal survival, by influencing the physiology of respiration in neonates. Mice lacking this cytochrome died shortly after birth and showed symptoms of severe respiratory distress. Respiratory distress is a side-effect of ciprofloxacin in adults also. Cipro also transfers through breastmilk.

Resistance to Bacteria

Taking ciprofloxin can spur germs to mutate so that future bacterial infections become untreatable. During the last decades a dramatic increase in bacterial strains multiresistant to antibiotics, particularly Cipro, has been reported. Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common acquired organisms in hospitals and long-term care institutions. The organism typically infects patients whose normal intestinal flora has been disturbed by the administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as Cipro. The diarrhea and inflammatory colitis associated with infection represent a serious medical and surgical complication leading to increased morbidity and mortality, and prolonging hospital stays by an average of nearly three weeks. This is especially true for the elderly and for patients with serious underlying diseases who are the most likely to develop the infection.

C-difficile associated diarrhea represents a major economic burden to the healthcare system, conservatively estimated at $3-6 billion per year in excess hospital costs in the U.S. alone. The emergence of this "antibiotic resistance" is a result of the overwhelming use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. High rates of fluroquinolone resistance have been reported in many countries. In Asia, Cipro no longer can be used to treat gonorrhea because the disease has become resistant to the drug. While the FDA in August 2000 approved Cipro as the first line treatment against anthrax, a few months later (October 2000) it asked Bayer to remove Baytril, its equivalent for animals. The FDA proposed banning the fluoroquinolones, which chicken and turkey farmers had given to birds in their water since 1995, to help shield animals from infection. The agency acted after linking the drugs to a jump in Campylobacter bacteria immune to the medications. Nearly 18% of one common strain that infects humans are now immune to the very same drugs which were considered the last line of defense against the infection. Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of food poisoning in the U.S. Typically contracted through raw or undercooked meat, the germs afflict more than 2 million people and kill some 500 each year in the U.S., according to the CDC. While Abbot voluntarily withdrew its version of the antibiotic (SaraFlox), Bayer decided to challenge the FDA. The company had the option to comply with the proposed ban or seek a hearing to determine whether such a move was justified. Bayer refused to comply with the ban, a move that kicked off a lengthy process that could take years. Meanwhile Bayer gets to poison the world and make huge profits from it. The AMA has advised its members to prescribe Cipro very cautiously, saying the worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance poses future dangers, worse than the anthrax attacks of today.

Photosensitivity

Photosensitization can result when light interacts with chemical agents in the skin and eyes. This process can produce undesirable clinical consequences, such as phototoxicity (exaggerated sunburn), photoallergy, or photocarcinogenicity. People receiving Cipro or any other fluoroquinolone are warned on the product inserts not to expose themselves to direct sunlight. Rashs develop on the areas exposed. Upon UVA-radiation, the "fluorine" of numerous fluoroquinolones such as lomefloxacin and fleroxacin, are "lost" as fluoride. Anions can activate visual photoreceptors in the dark. One anionic activator is the commonly used dental agent fluoride. These anions modulate photoreceptor biochemistry and may effect photoreceptor sensitivity.

Other Cipro Side Effects

Abnormal dread or fear, achiness, bleeding in the stomach and/or intestines, blood clots in the lungs, blurred vision, changes in color perception, chills, confusion, constipation, convulsions, coughing up blood, decreased vision, depression, difficulty in swallowing, dizziness, double vision, drowsiness, eye pain, fainting, fever, flushing, gas, gout flare up, hallucinations, hearing loss, heart attack, hiccups, high blood pressure, hives, inability to fall or stay asleep, inability to urinate, indigestion, intestinal inflammation, involuntary eye movement, irregular heartbeat, irritability, itching, joint or back pain, joint stiffness, kidney failure, labored breathing lack of muscle coordination, lack or loss of appetite, large volumes of urine, light-headedness, loss of sense of identity, loss of sense of smell, mouth sores, neck pain, nightmares, nosebleed, pounding heartbeat, ringing in the ears, seizures, sensitivity to light, severe allergic reactions, skin peeling, redness, speech difficulties, sluggishness, swelling of the face, neck, lips, eyes, or hands, swelling of the throat, tender red bumps on skin, tingling sensation, tremors, unpleasant taste, unusual darkening of the skin, vaginal inflammation, vague feeling of illness, weakness, yellowed eyes and skin.

Cipro causes fluoride poisoning. The ADA has shielded all from proper knowledge of fluoride toxicity. According to ABC News (Thur. Sept. 27, 2001), sales of Bayer's antibiotic Cipro have skyrocketed 1,000 percent since September 11. Peter Jennings reported anxious consumers are spending $700 per person for a two-month supply of the drug. Alternative antibiotics effective against anthrax are readily available for as little as $20. Nowhere in the Physician's Desk Reference (2000) is it claimed that Cipro is especially indicated for anthrax. In fact, Bacillus anthracis is not even mentioned. What is mentioned is that, "although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae."

This organism, like anthrax, is an aerobic gram-positive microbe. (Likewise, Bacillus anthracis causes pneumonia in the form of commonly terminal hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia.) Furthermore the PDR states: "WARNINGS--THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND ADOLESCENTS (LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED." Alternatively, numerous bioweapons experts have consistently recommended far less costly and time-tested antibiotics to fight anthrax, including the natural and synthetic penicillins, erythromycin, cephalosporins, and the tetracyclines. In an open letter to FBI officials and members of congress, Dr. Leonard Horowitz, a consumer health advocate, and Harvard School of Public Health graduate, is urging an investigation. At issue is the unprecedented July 29, 2000 single drug endorsement by the FDA for Cipro. A conspiracy to commit fraud is indicated.

Black's Law Dictionary defines fraud as "a concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her injury." "In this context," Dr. Horowitz wrote, "ABC's special segment on anthrax and Cipro sales may be seen as a form of "white collar bioterrorism." Through this savvy and fraudulent form of drug promotion, consumers are being disadvantaged, over-charged, and placed at risk of injury from the potentially dangerous side effects of an antibiotic that offers no significant advantage over less costly alternatives for anthrax." A list of alternative antibiotics recommended for anthrax is provided on the doctor's website at http://www.tetrahedron.org.

The Bayer Corporation maintains several serious skeletons in its corporate closet. The CIA (currently overseeing public health and infectious disease departments for national security reasons) took over the I.G. Farben/Bayer building at the close of WWII, as they helped many Nazi scientists and wealthy German industrialists escape to America and elsewhere during Project Paperclip. Hermann Schmitz, Bayer's president at the time, and overseer of Farben--controlled labor camps, was sentenced to only four years of imprisonment at his Nuremberg trial. The company emerged from the holocaust virtually unscathed.  Bayer maintained intimate ties to the German chemical/pharmaceutical cartel known as I.G. Farben. This consortium produced the earliest pesticides, drugs, and war gasses, including Zyclone B used in concentration camp gas chambers. According to the first CIA director Allen W. Dulles, as reported by CBS News war correspondent Paul Manning, the Farben cartel provided the chief economic and industrial engines behind the rise of the Third Reich and Hitler. The Bayer Company evaded U.S. government controls during and following the holocaust, in which millions of Jewish people were used as experimental subjects in medical atrocities overseen by I.G. Farben's president Hermann Schmitz, who directed the German-multinational Bayer A.G.

Natural Alternatives

Colloidal Silver

The 1994 issue of Newsweek featured a six page article, "Antibiotics, The end of Miracle Drugs?" as the cover story. "The rise of drug-resistant germs is unparalleled in recorded history," according to the article. "Penicillin and tetracycline lost their power over staph back in the 1950's and 60's. Another antibiotic, methicillin, provided a backup for a while, but methicillin-resistant staph is now common in hospitals and nursing homes worldwide...Trying to cripple bacteria's defenses...will not do much more than buy us five to ten years... A better strategy might be to abandon antibiotics altogether in favor of different kinds of drugs." Not a very pretty picture.

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The September, 1995 issue of Time magazine featured an article titled "Revenge of the Killer Microbes." Sounds like a science fiction thriller, doesn't it? But Time was serious. "Faced with AIDS, and with an ever increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, doctors were forced to admit that the medical profession was actually retreating in the battle against germs. The question ceased to be, 'When will infectious disease be wiped out?' and became 'Where will the next deadly new plague appear?'...Humanity once had the hubris to think it could control or even conquer all these microbes. But anyone who reads today's headlines knows how vain that hope turned out to be. New scourges are emerging -- AIDS is not the only one -- and older diseases like tuberculosis are rapidly evolving into forms that are resistant to antibiotics,...In 1992, 13,300 hospital patients died of infections that resisted every drug doctors tried."

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The basic problem is simply that bacteria have a tremendous ability to adapt to substances. They can and do mutate to overcome antibiotics. When the antibiotics destroy the bacteria which are susceptible to them, they can clear the way for the resistant bacteria to move in uninhibited.

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Still another problem that has plagued the medical profession from the beginning with modern antibiotics has been that beneficial bacteria and organisms play various important, natural functions in the body. Antibiotics often play havoc with some of these friendly organisms, producing long-lasting side effects that may be difficult to correct. Science Digest suggested an answer to all of these catastrophic problems back in March of 1978 in an article titled "Our Mightiest Germ Fighter." This article by Jim Powell stated: "Thanks to eye-opening research, silver is emerging as a wonder of modern medicine. An antibiotic kills perhaps a half-dozen different disease organisms, but silver kills some 650. Resistant strains fail to develop. Moreover, silver is virtually non-toxic."

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One reason that the antibiotics have been so popular in the medical field is due to the fact that they can be patented. Therefore, the pharmaceutical companies find it financially worth while to keep the doctors educated in their medicines, while other products go unnoticed. Silver, on the other hand, is not patentable and there are no huge profits in it, so it is not worth heavy promotion. The high-priced products run over the low cost products, simply because they are more profitable.

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All of this is happening at the same time that disease bacteria are developing immunity to modern antibiotics. Furthermore, the immunity to the antibiotics seems to be developing all over the world, even in isolated areas. The medical profession is alarmed. Can silver save us? Many authorities think so.

Colloidal silver is the product of an electromagnetic process that pulls microscopic particles from a larger piece of silver into a liquid, such as water. These microscopic particles can more easily penetrate and travel throughout the body. Colloidal silver is pure silver divided so finely that fewer than 15 atoms of it cluster together in a particle. The FDA considers it a dietary supplement and does not restrict its sale in any way as long as it is properly manufactured. Colloidal silver works as a catalyst, disabling the enzyme that all one-celled bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms use for their oxygen metabolism. In short, the bad guys suffocate. Colloidal silver is nontoxic, making it safe for children and adults, as well as pets. Anything bigger than one cell seems to like it. Ayurvedic, Chinese and homeopathic practitioners use silver regularly. In ancient Greece and Rome, people used silver containers to keep liquids fresh. Throughout history, royal families have eaten from silver plates and cups, with silver utensils, and stored food in silver containers.

In 1919, Alfred Searle, founder of the pharmaceutical conglomerate wrote that "applying colloidal silver to human subjects has been done in a large number of cases with astonishingly successful results. For internal administration, orally or hypodermically, it has the advantage of being rapidly fatal to parasites without toxic action on its host. It is quite stable. It protects rabbits from10 times the lethal dose of tetanus or diphtheria toxin." Mainstream physicians used colloidal silver extensively as an antibiotic treatment up to 1939. But back then it cost a lot to produce highly effective colloidal silver. The pharmaceutical industry wanted drugs that were cheaper and patentable. As a result, colloidal silver fell out of favor. But in the 1970s, doctors at Washington University in St. Louis, searching for effective treatments for burn victims, stumbled upon colloidal silver after trying many other medicines, and it became valued once again. In 1988, a bio-medical research team at UCLA's School of Medicine showed that destructive bacteria, virus and fungus organisms died within minutes of contact with silver.

The EPA approves colloidal silver water filters. NASA uses a silver water purification system for the space shuttle, as do the Soviets. Japanese firms remove cyanide and nitric oxide from the air with silver. Because it doesn’t sting the eyes, it often replaces chlorine in swimming pools. British Airways, Swissair, Scandinavian Airlines, Lufthansa, Olympic, Air France, Canadian Pacific Airlines, AlItalia, KLM, Japan Airlines and Pan Am use silver water filters to curtail waterborne diseases. Because no known pathogenic organism can live in the presence of even minute traces of the chemical element metallic silver, colloidal silver is effective against more than 650 different pathogens, whereas a broad-spectrum antibiotic kills, at best, six different disease organisms. It does this by attaching itself to the cell membrane of a bacterium, which disables its oxygen-metabolism enzyme, its chemical lung. Because it can no longer breathe, within a few minutes the pathogen suffocates and dies and is cleared out of the body by the immune, lymphatic and elimination systems. Many strains of pathogenic microbes, viruses, fungi, bacteria or any other single-celled pathogens resistant to other antibiotics are killed on contact by colloidal silver and are unable to mutate. However, silver is virtually non-toxic and does not harm tissue-cell enzymes and friendly bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, colloidal silver doesn’t weaken the body's immune system. In fact, it gives the body a second immune system, creating a shield against disease of all kinds.

Physicians use silver compounds in seventy percent of all the burn centers in the United States. All pathogenic organisms that have been tested were sensitive to the electrically generated silver ion, including some that were resistant to all known antibiotics. In no case have any undesirable side effects of the silver treatment been apparent. Silver doesn’t interact with any other medications. It doesn’t upset the stomach, and, in fact, is a digestion aid. It does not sting in the eyes. Medical journal reports and documented studies spanning the past 100 years indicate no known side effects from oral or I.V. administration of colloidal silver in animal or human testing. Silver stimulates bone-forming cells into growing new bone where it had not healed for long periods of time. Silver profoundly stimulates healing of skin and other soft tissues in a way unlike any known natural process. An average adult dose might be anywhere from a tablespoon per day to a sixteen-ounce glass, or more, since no toxic dose is known. When you apply current to silver in solution, metallic silver will always break off no larger than 1.26 angstroms or about 1/10,000 of a micron (0.0001 microns). This is misleading, however, because no colloid consists of individual silver ions or atoms of silver. Single atoms would, by definition, be dissolved. After the silver breaks off at 1.26 angstroms, atoms of silver aggregate into clusters that form new particles. The smallest aggregate of clusters creates a silver particle approximately 0.001 microns, or ten times larger than the smallest atom. These particles create colloidal silver that appears clear. Over time, as more electric current is applied, silver particles will aggregate into larger and larger particles much as they do in a silver plating process.

For systems with particle diameters less than one-twentieth the wavelength of light, the light scattered from a polychromatic beam is predominantly blue in color and is polarized to a degree that depends on the angle between the observer and the incident beam. The blue color of tobacco smoke is an example of Tyndall blue. As particles are increased in size, the blue color of scattered light disappears, and the scattered radiation appears white. The end result is that each particle size will interact with light at a specific wavelength, creating a variety of colored colloidal solutions. The Tyndall Effect is the visible scattering of light along the path of a beam of light as it passes through a system containing discontinuities. The luminous path of a beam of light is called a Tyndall Cone. Any true colloid of silver, or any other metal, will produce a Tyndall Cone once a narrow beam of light pierces the medium. A laser pointer works best. As the light passes through the colloid, each particle of silver refracts the light across other silver particles. The colloid becomes a sea of submicroscopic mirror balls, creating a glowing tunnel of light much wider than the original beam. Therefore, even clear colloidal silver can be given a visual test that will prove the presence of incredibly tiny particles. Because clear colloids contain the smallest silver particles, the Tyndall cone will be faint but still visible to the unaided eye.

The Colors of Colloidal Silver

When examining the variety of bottled colloidal silver at a health food store, it becomes evident that most manufacturers favor yellow-colored silver. The very idea of silver being "yellow" is confusing for many people. Some individuals have speculated that the yellow color is the result of sulfur or iron contamination. Others say the yellow color is the result of stabilizers containing a yellow dye. The continuous change in color from yellow to blue corresponds to a change in the absorption maximum of the shorter to longer wavelengths, with a decreasing degree of dispersion. This is a general phenomenon in colloid chemistry illustrating the relation between color and degree of dispersion. It turns out that all metals have a yellow phase when they are broken down into sub-microscopic particles in water. This is because color is the result of a specific particle size, rather than the metallic content of that particle, as well as the spacing between the particles. Therefore, colloidal silver can produce a yellow appearance when the particles fall somewhere between .01 to .001 microns (10-100 angstroms) and are evenly dispersed. This is the result of the absorption of indigo light by the colloid, which leaves its inverse color, yellow, to be refracted. In short, color equals particle size plus dispersion. This is why yellow colloidal silver appears clear for the first few hours after its manufacture. It takes several hours for the particles to evenly disperse through the water, creating a gradual deepening of color. The density of the colloid produces the intensity of the color. From 1 to 20 ppm, the color will range from very light yellow to yellow to amber. A shift in color indicates a new silver particle agglomeration size plus dispersion. From small to large, the spectrum reads as follows: clear, yellow, red, green and blue.

While trace elements can affect conductivity and, therefore, influence agglomeration rates, color is not always a function of trace elements per se. Of all the various colloids of the spectrum, clear colloidal silver is the highest quality simply because it consists of the smallest particle size. The yellow colloidal silver may be less effective than the clear colloid because of the slightly larger silver particles. Colloids are by nature the smallest particles into which matter can be divided, while still retaining individual characteristics of that matter. Reducing a piece of metallic silver to a cloud of submicroscopic particles greatly extends its total surface area, and its healing properties, while deepening its penetration into the body. The minute particles also afford ease of elimination and therefore the absence of toxicity. Upon ingesting the silver colloid, the silver particles quickly pass through the stomach lining and into the bloodstream, where they circulate for about a week before elimination. There is evidence that the majority of silver particles are eliminated within twenty-four hours, though this can vary with particle size and individual body chemistry.

Making Clear Colloidal Silver

Colloidal silver generators are available for home use. This is done with a  constant current generator and steam distilled water. One unit has a variable control that allows you to set the strength desired from 5 to approximately 20 PPM.  The generator automatically shuts off when the setting is reached.   Control of the generator is NOT done with a timer.   A conductivity sensor and associated circuitry determines when the preset PPM is reached.  Larger volumes of water just require longer production times to produce the CS,

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A built in stirring motor keeps the silver atoms from colliding during production, to prevent agglomeration.  All colloidal silver made with this generator is clear, colorless, and very stable and has long shelf life. The generator sits on top of any standard mouth jar or can be placed on top of any vessel with a larger opening.   The electrodes are built in and easily replaceable.  Just set it and forget it.  When the green light goes out, the CS is ready to use.  No waiting for the particles to disperse in the suspension.  This unit will make a quart of colloidal silver automatically and easily.   Comes with .999% pure silver electrodes.

Oregano Oil

The leaves and flowering tops of more than two dozen fragrant plant species are endowed with a distinctive mildly minty flavor widely recognized as the herb oregano. The most popular of the Origanum species in North America is Origanum vulgare, otherwise known as European oregano or origanum. It’s actually a member of the mint family (Labiatae).

The leaves of the oregano plant provide a mild spicy taste that lends itself well to pizza toppings and pasta salads. Aside from its use as a culinary flavoring, the oregano plant also provides concentrated aromatic oil with distinct healing properties. Texts from ancient times indicate the oil was used as a remedy for seizures and narcotic poisonings, albeit with unknown results.

Health Benefits

The essential oil distilled from oregano contains varying amounts of thymol and carvacrol, compounds that can apparently inhibit the growth of fungi, worms, and possibly other organisms. In fact, some sources even recommend rubbing a drop or two of oregano oil into an area that is itching due to athlete’s foot, a common condition caused by the Tinea versicolor fungus.

Mild stomach-settling and cough-clearing qualities are attributed to oregano oil; they are likely due to the presence of thymol and carvacrol as well. (Another common culinary herb—thyme—also contains high concentrations of these compounds.) A drop or two of oregano oil mixed with milk or juice may well calm an upset stomach and aid digestion.

Disease-fighting antioxidants have been identified in oregano, although it’s not clear whether they appear in the oil as well as in the leaves and other above-ground parts of the plant. Oregano oil has been used as an antiseptic in hand cleansers and shampoos, and as a remedy for headaches when rubbed into the temples.

Oil of oregano may help to:

* Alleviate toothaches. Diluted oregano oil rubbed gently into inflamed and aching gums around an ailing tooth may ease pain. The oregano oil may even help to stave off infection given its slight antiseptic properties.

* Fight Candida overgrowth syndrome. Some nutritionally oriented doctors enlist oregano oil’s antifungal actions to fight this syndrome, a condition believed to be caused by an imbalance in the body’s fungi and bacteria levels.

Dosage Information

* For toothache: Dilute oregano oil in a small amount of water and dab onto the painful area three or four times a day, as needed for discomfort.

* For Candida overgrowth syndrome: Place three drops of oregano oil into an empty gelatin capsule or mix the same amount of oil into juice and take three times a day. Several weeks of continuous use may be required for the anti-fungal properties of oil of oregano to clear up a deep-seated Candida infection.

Olive Leaf

The olive tree has been held in high esteem throughout history. Olive is a small evergreen tree native to Mediterranean regions. The characteristic green to blue-black fruit of this tree yields useful, edible oil. Both the oil and the dried green-grayish colored leaves are used medicinally.

History

Olive trees have been cultivated for thousands of years, but the immune and circulatory benefits of olive leaf have only recently become fully realized. Olea europaea is a small, ever green tree, averaging 20 feet or more in height. The tree is native to Asia Minor and Syria, but is cultivated in several Mediterranean countries, Chile, Peru, and South Australia. The high position held by the Olive tree in ancient days may be realized when it is remembered that Moses exempted from military service men who would work at its cultivation, and that Olive oil is mentioned as a symbol of goodness & purity in both Scriptural and classical writings, and the tree has represented peace and happiness.

The oil, in addition to its wide use in diet, was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples, while the victor in the Olympic games was crowned with its leaves. In the 1850’s, medical reports described how Olive Leaves cured the worst cases of malaria. An 1854 account in the Pharmaceutical Journal provided the following simple healing recipe: “A handful of leaves boiled in a quart of water down to half its original volume. A wine glassful was then administered until the fever was cured.” The author believed that a bitter substance in the leaves was the key healing ingredient. This method was said to be extremely popular in England to treat sick returnees from the tropical colonies. In 1962, a scientific paper written by an Italian researcher reported that the chemical constituent “oleuropein” had the ability to lower blood pressure in animals. Other European researchers confirmed this finding and found also that it could increase blood flow in the coronary arteries, relieve arrhythmias and prevent intestinal muscle spasms. About the same time, other investigators were searching for the chemical agent within oleuropein that might be the most medically potent. A Dutch researcher found it –elenolic acid. What’s more, the Europeans found it had a powerful anti-bacterial effect. In the late 1960’s, research by scientists at a major American pharmaceutical company showed that elenolic acid also inhibited the growth of viruses. In fact, it stopped every virus that it was tested against. A number of in vitro (test tube) laboratory experiments with calcium elenolate, a salt of elenolic acid, demonstrated a killer effect against many viruses, bacteria and parasitic protozoans. Among other effects, the compound was found to be potent against a variety of viruses associated with the common cold.

Active Constituents

Olive leaf has a wide number of constituents, including oleuropein and several types of flavonoids (e.g., rutin, apigenin, luteolin). While olive leaf is traditionally associated with a wide number of medicinal claims, few of these have been verified by experimental study. In an animal study oleuropein (when given by injection or in intravenous form) was found to decrease blood pressure (e.g., systolic and diastolic) and dilate the coronary arteries surrounding the heart. This ability to lower blood pressure may justify the traditional use of olive leaf in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. However, human studies are needed to clearly establish olive leaf as a potential treatment for high blood pressure.

In addition, a test tube study has revealed that oleuropein inhibits the oxidation of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. LDL oxidation is one part in a series of damaging events that, if left unchecked, can lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This action may provide one clue as to why those consuming a Mediterranean-based diet may lower their risk of developing atherosclerosis.

Oleuropein from olives may also have antibacterial properties. When unheated olives are brined to preserve them, oleuropein is converted into another chemical called elenolic acid. Elenolic acid has shown antibacterial actions against several species of Lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus in a test tube study. Whether or not the oleuropein in the leaf undergoes such a transformation is open to question at this point, raising some question as to its antibacterial effects and potential use for this purpose in humans. Olive leaf extracts have been employed experimentally to lower elevated blood-sugar levels in animals with diabetes. These results have not been reproduced in human clinical trials and as such, no clear conclusions can be made from this animal study in the treatment of diabetes. The effective amount of olive leaf for human use is not established. To make a tea, steep 1 teaspoon (5 grams) of dried leaves in 1 cup (250 ml) of hot water for 10–15 minutes. Dried leaf extracts containing 6–15% oleuropein are available commercially, but no standard amount has been established. The safety of olive leaf has not been established in pregnancy. Olive leaf can be irritating to the stomach lining and should be taken with meals.

Garlic

Allium sativum is probably the best known herb in the world for its medicinal and culinary uses. It is a member of the Lily family, one of its closest relatives being the onion. Garlic is a herb which has long been prized for its culinary and nutritional properties. Garlic may help to maintain a healthy circulation when taken as part of a healthy lifestyle and diet. Garlic is mentioned in Old English writings from the tenth to the fifteenth centuary. Chaucer, for example, refers to Garlic as 'Poor Man's Treacle', meaning an elixir or 'cure-all'. Garlic was worshipped by the ancient Egyptians, chewed by Greek Olympian atheletes and thought to be essential for keeping vampires at bay! But it is also good for zapping bacteria, keeping your heart healthy, warding off coughs and colds. For many centuries now, Garlic has been used to fight various infections. Garlic is the only antibiotic that can actually kill infecting bacteria and at the same time protect the body from the poisons that are causing the infection. It is known that the most sensitive bacterium to garlic is the deadly Bacillus anthracis which produces the poison anthrax. Even the forefather of antibiotic medicine Louis Pasteur acknowledged garlic to be as effective as penicillin and late studies showed similar activity to a more modern antibiotic, Chloramphenicol. Even the blood of garlic eaters can kill bacteria and it is also reported that the vapor from freshly cut garlic can kill bacteria at a distance of 20 cms! Another once common, and apparently returning disease, tuberculosis was treated with garlic very successfully as the invading organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis is sensitive to several of the sulphur components found in garlic.

Long before antiobiotics were developed in 1928, Garlic was often used in the treatment of infections from bronchitis and tuberculosis to dysentry and typhoid as well as your general colds, flu, ear, nose & throat infections. During World War I, Garlic was used to dress the wounds of soldiers, with fantastic results. It certainly saved many lives by stopping infections in the wounds turning to blood poisoning. It is still not fully understood how Garlic achieves its antibiotic action, though its pungent, odorous volatile oil, allicin, is considered to be one of the main active constituents. Other therapeutic constituents present in Garlic are, vitamins A, B, C and E; minerals such as Germanium (assists toxic metal elimination, restores pH - acid & alkaline balance - and is an immune enhancer); and Selenium (an essential nutrient, and antioxidant which enhances the body's own healing mechanisms).

Coconut Oil

Coconuts are a source of important physiologically functional components, found in the fat part of whole coconut, in the fat part of desiccated coconut and in the extracted coconut oil. Lauric acid, the major fatty acid from the fat of the coconut, has long been recognized for the unique properties that it lends to nonfood uses in the soaps and cosmetics industry. More recently, lauric acid has been recognized for its unique properties in food use, which are related to its antiviral, antibacterial and antiprotozoal functions. These fatty acids are found in the largest amounts only in traditional lauric fats, especially from coconut. Natural coconut fat in the diet leads to a normalization of body lipids, protects against alcohol damage to the liver and improves the immune system's anti-inflammatory response. Certain fatty acids and their derivatives can have adverse effects on various microorganisms. Those microorganisms that are inactivated include bacteria, yeast, fungi and enveloped viruses.

Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid which has the additional beneficial function of being formed into monolaurin in the human or animal body. Monolaurin is the antiviral, antibacterial and antiprotozoal monoglyceride used by the human and animal to destroy lipid-coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, influenza, various pathogenic bacteria including hemophilus influenzae, staphylococcus epidermidis and group B gram-positive streptococcus, listeria monocytogenes streptococcus agalactiae, helicobacter pylori, groups A, F and G streptococci, gram-positive organisms, and some gram-negative organisms if pretreated with a chelator; also, a number of fungi, yeast and protozoa such as giardia lamblia have been found to be inactivated or killed by lauric acid or monolaurin. The fungi include several species of ringworm.

The yeast reported is candida albicans. Chlamydia trachomatis is inactivated by lauric acid, capric acid and monocaprin. Some studies have also shown some antimicrobial effects of the free lauric acid. Also, approximately 6-7% of the fatty acids in coconut fat are capric acid. Capric acid is another medium-chain fatty acid which has a similar beneficial function when it is formed into monocaprin in the human or animal body. Monocaprin has also been shown to have antiviral effects against HIV and is being tested for antiviral effects against herpes simplex and for antibacterial effects against Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted bacteria. The properties that determine the anti-infective action of lipids are related to their structure. The monoglycerides are active; diglycerides and triglycerides are inactive. Of the saturated fatty acids, lauric acid has greater antiviral activity than caprylic acid, capric acid, or myristic acid. The fatty acids and monoglycerides produce their killing/inactivating effect by lysing the plasma membrane lipid bilayer. The antiviral action attributed to monolaurin is that of solubilizing the lipids and phospholipids in the envelope of the virus, causing the disintegration of the virus envelope. One antimicrobial effect in bacteria is related to monolaurin's interference with signal transduction, and another antimicrobial effect in viruses is due to lauric acid's interference with virus assembly and viral maturation.

Research has shown that enveloped viruses are inactivated in both human and bovine milk by added fatty acids and monoglycerides and also by endogenous fatty acids and monoglycerides of the appropriate length. Lauric acid is one of the best inactivating fatty acids, and its monoglyceride is even more effective than the fatty acid alone. Monolaurin does not appear to have an adverse effect on desirable gut bacteria but, rather, only on potentially pathogenic micro-organisms.

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